Economics: Citing

Citing articles and books:

Citing economic/financial data and statistics:

All examples presented below follow the APA style citation.

Citing statistics from governments/organizations:

Basic form:

Last Name, A. A. or Corporate Name. (Year, Month Date or Date Range if appropriate). Title of data set: Subtitle [Table number or format]. Publisher Name if different than author. DOI or URL

World Bank Data:

World Bank. (2020). Export of goods and services (% of GDP), all countries [Data table].…

In-text citation (World Bank, 2020)

International Monetary Fund (IMF) Data:

International Monetary Fund. (2020). Real effective exchange rate, consumer price index [Data table].

In-text citation (International Monetary Fund, 2020)

Statistics Canada Data:

Statistics Canada. (2019). Table 13-10-0096-05 Life satisfaction, satisfied or very satisfied, by age group [Data table].

In-text citation (Statistics Canada, 2019)

Statistics Canada. (2019). Canadian Community Health Survey, 2017-2018: Annual Component [Public use microdata file].…

In-text citation (Statistics Canada, 2019)

Citing data from library databases:

Basic form:

Corporate Author Name. (Year of Publication, Month Date if approriate). Title of data sets. Name of Library Database or Platform on which the database is hosted.


Datastream. (2021). Canadian to US exchange rates, 1990-2021 (annual data). Refinitiv Eikon.

In-text citation (Datastream, 2021)

Wharton Research Data Services (WRDS):

Compustat North America - Fundamentals Annual. (2021). Current assets for Apple and IBM, 2010 - 2021. Wharton Research Data Services (WRDS).

In-text citation (Compustat North America, 2021)