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Qualitative Research in Psychology

Course Number: PS398

Subject: Psychology

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Search Omni for Journal Articles and Books

logo of Omni. Academic Search TOol

Omni is a general academic search engine subscribed to by the Laurier Library.

As it is general, it will find journal articles, books, and more from all sorts of academic disciplines.

 

Search PsycINFO for Journal Articles

logo of APA PsycINFO

APA PsycINFO (note: APA stands for American Psychological Association) is a specialized academic search engine. The Laurier Library subscribes to it through the ProQuest company.  It has special features designed for psychology students, faculty, and researchers. It searches for mostly psychology journal articles. 

 

Finding the Parts of a Reference in Omni

Description follows for blind and visually impaired users. Image shows an Omni full record display with cues to finding reference information. It will be described below.

Image description

This description is provided for blind and DeafBlind individuals who use screen readers or braille displays (with captions). It represents the information that is displayed in Omni and presented here for learning.

ARTICLE 
heading 3  Disrupting Binarized Diversity Discourses in ASL/English Bimodal Bilingual Deaf Education through Examining Affects within Apple Time, a Theatre Play. That is the article title
Weber, Joanne. That is the author.
Canadian modern language review, 2022, Vol.78 (1), p.17-33. That is the journal title, 2022 is the year of publication, 78 is the volume, 1 is the issue, and 17-33 are the page numbers. 

What follows is the path to get the digital object identifier. Down.
 
PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL

Move to the "Send to" heading 4

Send to, heading level 4  
 

View Online,  heading level 4. This section contains the various library collections that have the article. To get an accessible copy email libaccessibility@wlu.ca

Move to the "Details" heading 4

Details, heading level 4. Step through this section to find other information about this article.  
Title
list, Disrupting Binarized Diversity Discourses in ASL/English Bimodal Bilingual Deaf Education through Examining Affects within Apple Time, a Theatre Play

Author/Creator

list, link Weber, Joanne

Published In
list, Canadian modern language review, 2022, Vol.78 (1), p.17-33

Identifier
list of 3 items
ISSN: 0008-4506
EISSN: 1710-1131
DOI: 10.3138/CMLR-2020-0078

 

 

Getting Author, Date, Title, and Source from Omni

Examine the item Omni (this goes to the search results. You'll have to click the relevant item in the search results to get the full record)

Author

Date Published

Title of Article

Source for Periodicals

-

Journal title

Source for Periodicals -

Volume & Issue

Source for Periodicals -

Page numbers

Source for Periodicals

DOI, (Digital Object Identifier)

Joanne Weber 

2022

Disrupting Binarized Diversity Discourses in ASL/English Bimodal Bilingual Deaf Education through Examining Affects within Apple Time, a Theatre Play

Canadian modern language review

Volume 78

Issue 3

17-33

DOI: 10.3138/cmlr-2020-0078

 

 

 

Finding the Parts of a Reference in APA PsycINFO

Description follows for blind and visually impaired users. Image shows ProQuest full record display with cues to finding reference information. It will be described below.

Image description

This description has features for blind and DeafBlind individuals who use screen readers or braille displays (with captions).

 

Scholarly Journal 
list end
heading 1, Reclaiming disabled creativity: How cultural models make legible the creativity of people with disabilities
link, Jones, David R. 
link, Culture & Psychology
link, Vol. 28, Iss. 4Librarian note: 28 is the volume and 4 is the issue   
 (Dec 2022): 491-505. DOI:10.1177/1354067X211066816 Librarian note: 2022 is the year,  491-505 are the page numbers, and the Document Object Identifier starts at 10 and ends with 816.

Be sure to explore the rest of the page as there's lots of important information for evaluating the relevance of the article.

 

 

Getting Author, Date, Title, Source from PsycINFO

Examine the item in APA PsycINFO

Author

Date Published

Title of Article

Source for Periodicals -

Journal title

Source for Periodicals -

Volume & Issue

Source for Periodicals -

Page numbers

Source for Periodicals -

DOI (Document Object Identifier)

David R. Jones 

2022

Reclaiming disabled creativity: How cultural models make legible the creativity of people with disabilities

Culture & Psychology

Volume 28

Issue 4

491-505

DOI:10.1177/1354067X211066816

 

 

 

Building References: Journal Article with One Author

Icons of journal article and one author. Purpose is to guide attention to this section

Breakdown of Formatting Rules

 

Author

Date Published

Title

Source -

Journal

Source -

Volume & Issue

Source -

Page

Source -

DOI

Input

Debra Penney

October 4, 2022

Iraqi Muslim Women and Primary Healthcare Providers’ Perspectives and Experiences in the Clinic Visit in the Western United States

Qualitative Health Research

Volume 32, issue 3

pages 2040 - 2052

10.1177/10497323221130843

Rules

Last name

Comma

First name initial

Period

Space

Left parenthesis

Year

Right parenthesis

Period

Space

Title of article

Period

Space

Journal title in italics

Comma

Space

 

Volume in italics

Left parenthesis

Issue

Right parenthesis

Comma

Space

Start page

Dash

End page

Period

https

colon

forward slash

forward slash

doi.og

forward slash

DOI number

Output

Penney, D.

(2022). 

Iraqi Muslim Women and Primary Healthcare Providers’ Perspectives and Experiences in the Clinic Visit in the Western United States.

Qualitative Health Research,

22(3),

2040-2052.

https://doi.org/10.1177/10497323221130843

 

Final Reference

Penney, D. (2022). Iraqi Muslim Women and Primary Healthcare Providers’ Perspectives and Experiences in the Clinic Visit in the Western United States. Qualitative Health Research, 22(3), 2040-2052. https://doi.org/10.1177/10497323221130843

 

 

Building References: Journal Article with Multiple Authors

Icons of journal article and multiple authors. Purpose is to guide attention to this section

 

Breakdown of Formatting Rules

 

Author

Date Published

Title

Source -

Journal

Source -

Volume & Issue

Source -

Page

Source 

-

DOI

Input

Lucinda McKnight

Ben Whitburn

February 6, 2017

The fetish of the lens: persistent sexist and ableist metaphor in education research

International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education

Volume 30, issue 9

821 to 831

10.1080/09518398.2017.1286407

Rules

Last name

Comma

First name initial 

Period

Space

Middle name initial, if one is present

Period

Comma

Space

Repeat that for all but last author

Before the final author's last name put the ampersand symbol: &. Press shift + 7 on your keyboard for it.

Space

Left parenthesis

Year

Right parenthesis

Period

Space

Title of article

Period

Space

Journal title in italics

Comma

Space

 

Volume in italics

Left parenthesis

Issue

Right parenthesis

Comma

Space

Start page

Dash

End page

Period

https

colon

forward slash

forward slash

doi.og

forward slash

DOI number

Output

McKnight, L. & Whitburn, B.

(2017). 

The fetish of the lens: persistent sexist and ableist metaphor in education research

International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education,

30(9),

821-831.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09518398.2017.1286407

Final Reference

McKnight, L. & Whitburn, B. (2017). The fetish of the lens: persistent sexist and ableist metaphor in education research. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 30(9), 821-831. https://doi.org/10.1080/09518398.2017.1286407

 

 

Building References: Book with One Author

Icons of book and one author. Purpose is to guide attention to this section

Breakdown of Formatting Rules

 

Author

Date Published

Title of Book

Source -

Publisher

Rules

Last name

Comma

First name initial

Period

Space

Left parenthesis

Year

Right parenthesis

Period

Space

Title of Book in italics

Period

Space

Publisher name

Period.

Example

Freebody, P. 

(2003). 

Qualitative research in education interaction and practice

SAGE.

 

Final Reference

Freebody, P. (2003). Qualitative research in education interaction and practice. SAGE.

 

 

Building References: Book with Multiple Authors

Icons of book and multiple authors. Purpose is to guide attention to this section

Breakdown of Formatting Rules

 

Author

Date Published

Title of Book

Source -

Publisher

Rules

Last name

Comma

First name initial 

Period

Space

Middle name initial, if one is present

Period

Comma

Space

Repeat that for all but last author

Before the final author's last name put the ampersand symbol: &. Press shift + 7 on your keyboard for it.

Space

Left parenthesis

Year

Right parenthesis

Period

Space

Title of Book in italics

Period

Space

Publisher name

Period.

Output

Sherman, R. R., & Webb, R. B.

(2004). 

Qualitative Research in Education

Taylor and Francis.

 

Final Reference

Sherman, R. R., & Webb, R. B. (2004). Qualitative Research in Education. Taylor and Francis.

 

Building References: Twitter

Description follows for blind and visually impaired users. Image shows a tweet with highlights to help find reference information. Same info will be described below.

image description

This description has features for blind and DeafBlind individuals who use screen readers or braille displays (with captions).

The tweet described below can be found on Twitter.

Conversation, heading 1,
Erie Otters 🦦 Verified account @ErieOtters The moment you've all been asking for! Go and grab your Black History t-shirt in the Otters' Den or online. by clicking the link below! 🔗 : bit.ly/3w8KAyS Image Reply Retweet Like Share Tweet article. Librarian's note: That's contains duplicate of the message content of the tweet, which is also below. 
link, Erie Otters 🦦Librarian's note: That's part of the author. Caution: The second "Otter" is an emoticon. The APA manual of style does not tell us what to do with emoticons. It should probably be removed from the reference. I have reported this to the American Psychological Association and indicated identifying emoticons is a problem for blind scholars.
link, Verified account
link, @ErieOttersLibrarian's note: That's part of the author.
More, button menu, contracted
The moment you've all been asking for! Go and grab your Black History t-shirt in the Otters' Den or online by clicking the link below!  Librarian's note: That's the content of the tweet

🔗, graphic

link, bit.ly/3w8KAyS
link,  Graphic, Image Librarian's note: This is the image that needs a brief description. 
link, 11:30 AM · Jan 16, 2023 Librarian's note: That's the date. 
29K
Views, link, 43

Retweets, link, 16
Quote Tweets, link, 219
Likes
button, Reply 
button menu, collapsed, Retweet
button, Like
button menu, collapsed, Share Tweet. Librarian's note: Open this button menu and select the Copy link to Tweet to copy the Tweet's link to the clipboard.

 

Breakdown of Formatting Rules

 

Author

Date Published

Title of Book

Source -

Social Mediate site Name

Source - Link

Rules for Tweet for Group

Name of Group

Left bracket

Ampersand symbol, @

Twitter username

Right bracket

Period

Space

Left parenthesis

Year

Comma

Space

Month

Space

Date

Right parenthesis

Period

Space

Content of the post up to the first 20 words

Space

Left bracket

Description of any audiovisuals

Right bracket

Period

Space

Site name

Period.

Link to tweet

Example

Erie Otters [@ErieOtters]

(2023, January 16). 

The moment you've been asking for! Go and grab your Black History t-shirt in the Otters' Den or online by [Image of stacks of folded Erie Otter t-shirts].

Twitter.

https://twitter.com/ErieOtters/status/1615023632249389056

 

Final Reference

Erie Otters [@ErieOtters] (2023, January 16). The moment you've been asking for! Go and grab your Black History t-shirt in the Otters' Den or online by [Image of stacks of folded Erie Otter t-shirts]. Twitter. 

 

 

In-Text Citations

Icon of citations. Purpose is to guide attention to this section

Citations appear in the text of your essay. APA uses the author-date citation pattern.

 

Example citations

We'll learn to use citations in our essay. Here are some examples to get you thinking:

  • The findings were not replicated (Olsen, 2020).
  • Olsen (2020) did not replicate the finds.
  • The findings were not replicated (Carey et al., 2021).
  • Lopez & McKenzie (2021), Anderson (2022), and Zimmerman et al. (2019) used qualitative research methods to study Canadian university student experiences.
  • In recent years, research in musical education has "grown significantly" (Carey  2021, p. 32). 

You can use two types of citations when writing an essay:

Parenthetical Citation

Narrative Citation

One, Two or Many Authors in a Source

Rules Breakdown

Number of Authors

Parenthetical Citation

Narrative Citation

One author

Example:

The findings were not replicated (Olsen, 2020).

Rules

  • Left parenthesis
  • Last name
  • Comma
  • Year
  • Right parenthesis

Example:

Olsen (2020) did not replicate the findings.

Rules

  • Last name
  • Left parenthesis
  • Year
  • Right parenthesis

Two authors

Example:

The findings were not replicated (Carson & Wilson, 2008).

Rules

  • Left parenthesis
  • Last name
  • Ampersand Symbol
  • Last name
  • Comma
  • Year
  • Right parenthesis

Example:

Carson and Wilson (2008) did not replicate the findings.

Rules

  • Last name
  • and 
  • Last name
  • Left parenthesis
  • Year
  • Right parenthesis

Three or more authors

Example:

The findings were not replicated (Carey et al., 2021).

Note: et al. is an abbreviation of the Latin term “et alia,” which means “and others. 

Rules

  • Left parenthesis
  • Last name
  • et, spelt e t
  • Space
  • al, spelt a l
  • Period
  • Year
  • Right parenthesis

 

Example:

Carey et al. (2021) did not replicate the findings.

Note: et al. is an abbreviation of the Latin term “et alia,” which means “and others. 

Rules

  • Last name
  • et, spelt e t
  • Space
  • al, spelt a l
  • Period
  • Left parenthesis
  • Year
  • Right parenthesis

 

One Source in a Sentence Citation 

A sentence in your essay can have citation that is made up of only one source, such as a journal article.

For example: The findings were not replicated (Olsen, 2020).

Rules Breakdown

Citing One Source

Parenthetical Citation

Narrative Citation

One article or book with one author

Example:

The findings were not replicated (Olsen, 2020).

Rules

  • Sentence
  • Space
  • Left parenthesis
  • Last name
  • Comma
  • Year
  • Right parenthesis
  • Period

Example:

Olsen (2000) did not replicate the findings.

Rules

  • Last name
  • Left parenthesis
  • Year
  • Right parenthesis
  • space
  • Sentence
  • Period

 

One article or book with two authors

Example:

The findings were not replicated (Carson & Wilson, 2008).

Rules

  • Sentence
  • Space
  • Left parenthesis
  • Last name
  • Space
  • Ampersand, &, shift + 7
  • Space
  • Last name
  • Comma
  • Space
  • Right parenthesis
  • Period

Example:

Carson and Wilson (2008) did not replicate the findings.

Rules

  • Last name
  • Space
  • and
  • Space
  • Last name
  • Space
  • Left parenthesis
  • Year
  • Right parenthesis
  • space
  • Sentence
  • Period

One article or book with three or more authors

Example:

The findings were not replicated (Carey et al., 2021).

Note: et al. is an abbreviation of the Latin term “et alia,” which means “and others. 

Rules

  • Sentence
  • Space
  • Left parenthesis
  • Last name
  • Space
  • et, spelt e t
  • space
  • al, spelt a l
  • Period
  • Comma
  • Space
  • Year
  • Right parenthesis
  • Period

 

Example:

Carey et al. (2021) did not replicate the findings.

Note: et al. is an abbreviation of the Latin term “et alia,” which means “and others. 

Rules

  • Space
  • et, spelt e t
  • Space
  • al, spelt a l
  • Period
  • Space
  • Left parenthesis
  • Year
  • Right parenthesis
  • space
  • Sentence
  • Period

 

Multiple Sources in a Sentence Citation

A sentence in your essay can have citation that is made up of two ore more source, such as two journal articles and book.

For example: Qualitative research methods have been used to study Canadian university student experiences (Anderson, 2022; Lopez & McKenzie, 2021; Zimmerman et al., 2019).

Rules Breakdown

Citing Multiple Sources in same sentence

Parenthetical Citation

Narrative Citation

Two or more sources

Example:

Qualitative research methods have been used to study Canadian university student experiences (Anderson, 2022; Lopez & McKenzie, 2021; Zimmerman et al., 2019).

Rules

  • order citations alphabetically by last name
  • Left parenthesis
  • Last name
  • Comma
  • Year
  • Semi-colon
  • Repeat for all works
  • Right parenthesis

Example:

Lopez & McKenzie (2021), Anderson (2022), and Zimmerman et al. (2019) used qualitative research methods to study Canadian university student experiences.

Rules

  • Sources can appear in any order

 

Page numbers in citations

Icon of citation with a page number. Purpose is to guide attention to this section

 

Rules

Example

Quote is on one page

Left parenthesis

Author last name

Comma

Year

comma

p, lower case

period

space

page number

Right parenthesis

 

 

In recent years, research in musical education has "grown significantly" (Carey  2021, p. 32). 

(Carey  2021, p. 32)

Quote goes over one page

 

Left parenthesis

Author last name

Comma

Year

Comma

p, lower case

p, lower case

Period

Space

Start page number

Dash (minus key)

Right parenthesis

 

Right parenthesis

Note: Assume the quote starts on one page and ends on another.

In recent years, research in musical education has "grown significantly, although funding for levels have not grown as steadily (Carey  2021, pp. 32 - 33).

 

Formatting Your Essay

Icon of essay and rules. Purpose is to draw attention to this section

 

Here are some APA rules for formatting your essays

Title Page

Elements of Title Page

Rules

Example

Title of paper

Title of paper

Format: Centred, bold, title case (first letter of major words is capitalized)

New line with ENTER key

A second new line

Senior Citizens use of Social Media in Waterloo: A Qualitative Study

 

 

Byline, that is the Author Name

 

First name 

Middle initial 

Period

Last name

Format: Centred, title case (first letter of major words is capitalized)

New line with ENTER key

Justin A. Example

Author affiliation

Department

Coma

University name

Format: Centred, title case

New line with ENTER key

Department of Psychology, Wilfrid Laurier University

Course number and name

Course number

Colon

Course name

Format: Centred, title case

New line with ENTER key

PS398: Qualitative Methods in Psychology

Instructor Name

Instructor's honorific, such as Dr.

Instructor first name

Space

Instructor last name

Format: Centred, title case

New line with ENTER key

Dr. Livia Dittmer

 

Assignment Due date

Month

Date

Comma

Year

Format: Centred, title case

November 15, 2022

Page Number

Numeral 1

Format: use numeral 1 not roman numeral i. Align right. Put in the page header (see below for dealing with page numbers)

1

 

 

Text of Paper

Starts on a new page after title page. You will need to use headings to organize your paper into sections.

Headings to Structure Your Paper

Heading Level

 

Example

Heading Level 1

Centred

Bold

Use Title Case the heading

Followed by new indented paragraph in regular text 

Introduction: Examining Seniors Use of Social Media

INDENT In this paper, the question of the value of qualitative research for studies in social media is examined...

 

 

Heading Level 2

Flush left (that is aligned left)

Bold

Title Case Heading

Followed by new indented (use tab key) paragraph in regular text 

Qualitative Research and Social Media

INDENT A benefit of qualitative research is that it examines meaning...

Heading Level 3

Flush left 

Bold

Italics

Title Case the heading

Followed by new indented paragraph in regular text 

Seniors Use of Social Media in Canada

INDENT More Canadian seniors are turning to social media platforms for...

Heading Level 4

Indented (use tab key)

Bold

Title Case the heading

Period

Space

Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph

INDENT Differences Amongst Anglophones and Francophones.  Anglophone and Francophone communities may use technologies in different ways... 

Heading Level 5

Indented (use tab key)

Bold

Italics

Title Case the heading

Period

Space

Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph without bold or italics.

INDENT Studies of Anglophone Seniors. Two major studies were conducted of Anglophone seniors, drawing on populations in Ontario and Western Canada. In the first study...

 

Page Numbers

  • Flush right
  • Put page number in the header of every page
  • Use the automatic page-numbering function of your word processor
  • Page 1 is the title page

Font

  • Use the same font and font size throughout
  • Examples: Times New Roman, 12 or Arial, 11.

 

Line spacing

  • double space the entire paper

Margins

  • 1 inch or 2.54 margins on all sides (top, bottom, left, and right)

Paragraphs

  • Align the text to the left 
  • Do not use the full justification setting
  • Use the tab key to indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 inches. This should be the default setting for the tab key on word processors

Reference List

Image of part of a reference list. Purpose is to guide sighted to the section. All elements will be described for blind and visually impaired

  • The reference section starts on a new page after the text
  • Use heading level 1 to place and style for the section label: References
  • Order the list of references alphabetically by author 
  • Double space the entire reference list 
  • Use a hanging indent of 0.5 inches or 1.27 cm for each reference list entry. This means the first line of the reference is aligned left, but the rest of the lines for that reference is 0.5 inches or 1.27 cm from the left.

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Last Updated: March 15, 2024 5:30pm