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Geographical Research Methods

Course Number: GESC258

Below is a brief guide to undertaking library research for peer-reviewed sources for your lab assignments. Examples from class are used where possible.

If you still need help, contact the Geography subject Librarian using the contact information at left

1. Initial first steps
  1. Break your research topic or question into concepts
  2. Run a few simple searches to determine what terms are used in different databases
  3. Create a search strategy you will run across multiple databases
2. Identifying your main concepts

Example topic: Activities in nature versus built environments

Added focus: University students' activities in nature vs. built environments

Possible research question: What are the effects of time spent in nature on university students? 

Concepts identified:

  1. Student(s), Undergraduate, learner
  2. University, College
  3. Nature, natural environment, natural world, outdoors, park, conservation area
  4. Impact, Effect, Implication, Result
3. Creating your search strategy
Create search “strings” that link together related concepts:

1 = student OR undergraduate


2 = University OR College


3 = nature OR "natural environment*" OR "natural world" OR outdoors OR "conservation area"

Search string combining terms above:

(student OR undergraduate) AND (University OR College) AND (nature OR "natural environment*" OR "natural world" OR outdoors OR "conservation area")

  • We didn't talk about this in the class workshop. You can literally copy/paste the above search string into any of our research databases and run it over and over again, and it will find results.

Another way of thinking about this is like a mathematical operation, as expressed below:

(1) + (2) + (3)


4. Search techniques for specific databases
  • Remember: do not type in questions!

Boolean operators

  • use Boolean operators to combine concepts: AND, OR, NOT  (see visual representations below)
    • AND - results must contain ALL terms specified
    • OR - results must contain ALL terms specified
    • NOT - results subtract the term you specify

Exact phrase search

  • “EXACT PHRASE” - double quotes around words indicate an exact phrase to be searched on

Wildcards and truncation

  •  ?  * are the 2 main characters used
    • Using the ? or * character in a word searches for spelling variants
    • E.g.: wom?n = woman, women
    • sustainab* = sustainable, sustainability
      • This character replaces between 5 to 10 characters of a word, depending on the database used


  • These are usually applied to search results
  • Web of Science example: Limit to "Articles" to ensure you're retrieving research articles (vs. conference proceedings, letters to the Editor, Opinion essays)
  • You can limit to specific publication years


Visual representations of boolean searching

A graphic is shown depicting how boolean searching using the AND operator works, with two intersecting circles and a small area highlighted in red in the middle, showing how AND produces a small though precise set of results.


A graphic is shown depicting how boolean searching using the OR operator works, with two intersecting circles and a large area highlighted in red, showing how OR searching encompasses large sets of results.


A graphic is shown depicting how boolean searching using the NOT operator works, with two intersecting circles and a large area highlighted in red, illustrating how using NOT will subtract results from an overall set.

5. Additional help

Most databases have very good additional help features, for example:

Look for the Help or ? which is usually found at right top or bottom of database pages





6. BONUS: comparison of Web of Science results vs. ChatGPT (Consensus and ScholarAI) 

I did a comparison between the search I demonstrated using Web of Science on Jan. 11 in the class workshop and ChatGPT 4.0. I also used the new Consensus and ScholarAI GPTs for further comprison. 

Results are listed below. 

  • I was able to retrieve 49 peer-reviewed articles in Web of Science
  • GPT 4.0 only retrieved 6 articles after several prompts (I asked for 10); 1 was not a peer-reviewed article
  • GPT Consensus gave me 5 articles initially, and 5 additional articles from 2017
  • ScholarAI gave me 6 articles initially, and 6 more when prompted
  • Additional notes:
    • not all the GPT articles focus on university students
    • all articles from GPT are open source (limiting research results)

I leave it to you to decide which tool gives you better scholarly results! :)

Web of Science search

Search strategy in Web of Science

Title = students*


Title = University OR college


Title = "natural environment*" OR "natural world" OR Nature OR outdoors OR "conservation area" OR park?


All Fields = impact* OR effect* OR result* OR benefit* OR finding*


Publication years = Jan. 1, 2017 to present




Web of Science results

49 record(s) printed from Clarivate Web of Science

Record 1 of 49

Title: The Restorative Effect of the Natural Environment on University Students' Psychological Health

Author(s): Payne, EA (Payne, Emma A.); Loi, NM (Loi, Natasha M.); Thorsteinsson, EB (Thorsteinsson, Einar B.)

Source: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH  Volume: 2020  Article Number: 4210285  DOI: 10.1155/2020/4210285  Published: MAY 8 2020  

Abstract: The present study evaluated the effect of a three-week intervention aimed at improving psychological health in university students. Participants included 200 Australian students randomly assigned to an experimental or waitlist control group, with 42 adhering to intervention instructions. Participants in the experimental group read a story about someone who used the natural environment to decrease stress and burnout levels and to increase their perceived satisfaction with life. They were then instructed to spend 20 minutes each week, for three weeks, in any chosen natural environment. Waitlist control participants received intervention instructions three weeks later. Restorativeness was positively associated with life satisfaction and negatively related to stress and burnout. Experimental participants, compared to waitlist control participants, experienced a significant decrease in stress; however, the intervention had no effect on life satisfaction or burnout. More research is still needed to determine the practical significance of nature exposure on university students' psychological health.

Accession Number: WOS:000536212100001

PubMed ID: 32454841

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Loi, Natasha 



Thorsteinsson, Einar B. 



Payne, Emma 



ISSN: 1687-9805

eISSN: 1687-9813

Record 2 of 49

Title: Characterization of the cognitive processes related to directed attention in natural environments and their relationship with physical activity. A review on university students

Author(s): Baena-Morales, S (Baena-Morales, Salvador); González-Fernández, FT (Gonzalez-Fernandez, Francisco Tomas); Garcia-Taibo, O (Garcia-Taibo, Olalla); López-Morales, J (Lopez-Morales, Juan)

Source: SPORT TK-REVISTA EUROAMERICANA DE CIENCIAS DEL DEPORTE  Volume:Issue:Pages: 7-12  Supplement:Published: NOV 2020  

Abstract: The aim of the present work is to review the bibliography that has compared the effect of physical activity (PA) performed in different environments, such as natural (AFMN) and artificial (AFEA), on directed attention (SA). For this purpose, a search has been made in different databases such as PubMed, Google academic and Sports DISCUS. All the searches were done from January 2000 to December 2019 using keywords such as directed attention, green exercise, physical activity or university students. In addition, articles were excluded if the population was not exclusively university students or if methodological did not specify variables such as the type of exercise performed or the AS measurement test. A total of six articles were selected which fully met the inclusion criteria. From the analysis of these investigations it was concluded that the effect of the AFMN is not significatively greater than the AEFA on the SA. Several methodological improvements are recommended for future research.

Accession Number: WOS:000588412900001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Baena-Morales, Salvador 



López-Morales, Juan 



González-Fernández, Francisco Tomás 



ISSN: 2340-8812

Record 3 of 49

Title: Acute effects of being outdoors on college students mood in Costa Rica

Author(s): Rodríguez-Montero, A (Rodriguez-Montero, Alejandro); Valverde-Vargas, J (Valverde-Vargas, Jasdyg); Monge-Ramos, J (Monge-Ramos, Josue); Rojas-Valverde, D (Rojas-Valverde, Daniel)

Source: VIREF-REVISTA DE EDUCACION FISICA  Volume:Issue:Pages: 1-10  Published: JUL-SEP 2019  

Abstract: Objective: analyze the acute effect of being outdoors in the mood of a group of college students of Costa Rica. Methods: participants of this study were 50 college students (age 21.88 +/- 4,11 years): 27(age 21.33 +/- 2.96 years) physical education students (PEG) and 23 (age 22.52 +/- 5.14 years) health promotion students (HPG). The 44 items POMS Mood State Questionnaire version was used, reestructured from the spanish version. Two assessments were performed immediately before and after a 35-minute being outdoor session, students were asked to be seated, open eyes and quiet. The participant were exposed to a natural grass environment surrounded by trees. Results: there were found significant differences in tension-anxiety, depression and fatigue. Conclusions: forest therapy does work for improving the mood state of college students.

Accession Number: WOS:000497979200001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Rojas-Valverde, Daniel 



ISSN: 2322-9411

Record 4 of 49

Title: The Effects of Using a Nature-Sound Mobile Application on Psychological Well-Being and Cognitive Performance Among University Students

Author(s): Luo, JT (Luo, Jiutong); Wang, MH (Wang, Minhong); Chen, L (Chen, Ling)

Source: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY  Volume: 12  Article Number: 699908  DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.699908  Published: NOV 24 2021  

Abstract: Many university students have been struggling with multiple challenges that may cause mental fatigue. Exposure to the natural environment is found to have restorative effects on mental fatigue, which can be explained by its benefits in physiological, psychological, and cognitive aspects. While the natural environment contains both visual and auditory elements, research on the effects of auditory elements, such as nature sounds, is underdeveloped and limited to laboratory settings. It remains unclear what are the effects of exposure to nature sounds in daily life settings. The study was conducted with 71 students from a university, who were randomly assigned to the experimental group using a nature-sound mobile application in daily life and the control group not using the application. After a 4-week exposure to the intervention, the students in the experimental group outperformed their counterparts in the control group on psychological well-being reflected in positive affect, as well as cognitive performance reflected in flow state, attention (in terms of alerting) and working memory (in terms of accuracy and reaction time). The findings reveal the positive impact of exposure to relaxing nature sounds on university students' psychological well-being and cognitive performance, as well as the potential of mobile applications to provide easy exposure to nature sounds.

Accession Number: WOS:000728970100001

PubMed ID: 34899458

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Wang, Minhong 



ISSN: 1664-1078

Record 5 of 49

Title: Minimum Time Dose in Nature to Positively Impact the Mental Health of College-Aged Students, and How to Measure It: A Scoping Review

Author(s): Meredith, GR (Meredith, Genevive R.); Rakow, DA (Rakow, Donald A.); Eldermire, ERB (Eldermire, Erin R. B.); Madsen, CG (Madsen, Cecelia G.); Shelley, SP (Shelley, Steven P.); Sachs, NA (Sachs, Naomi A.)

Source: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY  Volume: 10  Article Number: 2942  DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02942  Published: JAN 14 2020  

Abstract: Background: Across the U.S., college and university students exhibit high levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and other mental health issues. While counseling, medications and, in more severe cases, hospitalization are all appropriate treatments for such conditions, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that spending time in nature can provide tangible benefits for mental health and well-being. The aim of this study was to define a "dose" of time in nature that could be prescribed to college-age students, as a preventative and supportive mental health and well-being intervention. The specific objectives of this scoping review were thus: to define the minimum amount of time in nature that results in positive impact on mental health and well-being for college-aged students; to describe the types of engagement with nature that elicited the impact; and to describe and explore the most commonly used measure of effect pre- and post-time in nature. Methods: This scoping review was conducted following the PRISMA-ScR Checklist. A review protocol was developed but not registered. Fourteen bibliographic databases were searched and all results were blindly screened using established inclusion criteria. All titles and abstracts were screened by at least two reviewers, a third being used as a tie-breaker if needed. Studies were included if: subjects were of average college age; they examined a treatment of time (hours or minutes) in nature; they examined change in measures of mental health and well-being pre- and post-exposure; they compared participants across at least two environments; the study was published in English or French; and if the study was Results: Initially, 11,799 titles were identified and once de-duplicated, 10,917 titles were screened. One hundred fifty-five papers were given full text reviews, of which 14 studies were included in this review. In summary, 13 of the 14 papers explicitly noted that the participants were college students. Two-thirds of the studies (n = 10) took place in Japan. One study took place in Sweden, and the remaining studies took place in the United States (n = 3). These studies show that, when contrasted with equal durations spent in urbanized settings, as little as 10 min of sitting or walking in a diverse array of natural settings significantly and positively impacted defined psychological and physiological markers of mental well-being for college-aged individuals. Within the included studies, 22 different measures were used to assess the effects of nature doses on mental health and well-being. Conclusions: This review provides time-dose and activity-type evidence for programs looking to use time in nature as a preventative measure for stress and mental health strain, and also demonstrates opportunities in six specific foci for more research in this area.

Accession Number: WOS:000509904800001

PubMed ID: 31993007

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Eldermire, Erin 



ISSN: 1664-1078

Record 6 of 49

Title: Effectiveness of a mindful nature walking intervention on sleep quality and mood in university students during Covid-19: A randomised control study

Author(s): Ma, JN (Ma, Jingni); Williams, JM (Williams, Joanne M.); Morris, PG (Morris, Paul Graham); Chan, SWY (Chan, Stella W. Y.)

Source: EXPLORE-THE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND HEALING  Volume: 19  Issue:Pages: 405-416  DOI: 10.1016/j.explore.2022.08.004  Early Access Date: APR 2023   Published: MAY-JUN 2023  

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this project was to conduct a randomised control study to examine whether outdoor mindful walking in nature can effectively improve university students' sleep quality, mood, and mindfulness during the Covid-19 pandemic in the U.K.Methods: Participants were measured at T0 (pre-study baseline), T1 (pre-intervention), T2 (post-intervention), and T3 (follow-up). A total of 104 participants (female = 94) who were experiencing sleep difficulties were randomly allocated to either an experimental (i.e., nature) or control (i.e., urban) walking environment. Participants in each walking condition independently undertook a daily 35-minute walk for a week (7 days). Subjective sleep quality, total mood disturbance, mindfulness, and degree of nature connectedness, and participants' perspectives on the intervention, were collected. Results: Findings suggest that both groups resulted in significant improvements in participants' trait mindfulness, sleep quality and mood after the intervention. However, mindful walking in nature did not bring additional mental health benefits to participants relative to those who walked an urban environment. Participants provided their perspectives about the intervention, which will assist with future intervention development.Conclusions: Findings contribute to the evidence-base on the effectiveness of outdoor mindful walking in-terventions for enhancing mental health. These findings contribute new knowledge on how mindful walking outdoors reduces university students' mood disturbances and improves sleep quality and mindfulness level.

Accession Number: WOS:000984519400001

PubMed ID: 35973933

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Morris, Paul 



Ma, Jingni 



ISSN: 1550-8307

eISSN: 1878-7541

Record 7 of 49

Title: University students' participation in outdoor recreation and the perceived well-being effects of nature

Author(s): Puhakka, R (Puhakka, Riikka)

Source: JOURNAL OF OUTDOOR RECREATION AND TOURISM-RESEARCH PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT  Volume: 36  Article Number: 100425  DOI: 10.1016/j.jort.2021.100425  Early Access Date: OCT 2021   Published: DEC 2021  

Abstract: It is increasingly recognized that interacting with nature promotes well-being and health for both adults and children. Less is known about the role of nature in people's everyday lives during emerging adulthood which means the shift from adolescence to young adulthood. This study examines university students' participation in outdoor recreation and the perceived well-being effects of nature. The qualitative data consists of thematic writings (N = 47) produced by environmental students at the University of Helsinki, Finland, in 2020. The findings show that most students have negotiated time and other constraints and maintained active participation in outdoor recreation. The findings highlight that nature can have an important role in students' well-being during a life stage loaded with stress factors, and especially in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nature provides opportunities not only for physical activity but also for emotional and cognitive renewal, strengthening social relationships, and relieving the negative physiological effects of various stressors. Nature helps students in reflecting on their lives and even gaining a stronger sense of self. Natural settings provide a venue for students' socially shared experiences but also support retreat behaviors by enabling 'being away' and providing freedom from the pressures of student life. To prevent decline in connection with nature, special efforts should be made to support young adults' interaction with nature and gaining well-being benefits. Encouraging outdoor recreation at all life stages is needed to foster a lifelong nature connection and well-being experiences.
Management implications: The study highlights the importance of hearing young adults' voices in decision-making and land-use planning to provide diverse opportunities for outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism. The findings stress the value of urban green spaces in supporting students' well-being in their everyday lives. To provide a sense of extent and 'being away' from daily routines and requirements within the city, it is important to preserve slightly managed natural settings that generate opportunities to explore nature and receive multisensory and embodied experiences. Emphasis on multisensory experiences, such as hearing bird song and breathing fresh air, also stresses the importance of taking natural elements into account in all urban planning. Promoting easy access to both urban green spaces and more distant natural settings is important for young adults. Organizing outdoor activities may also help students in familiarizing themselves with green spaces and socializing with peers.

Accession Number: WOS:000708668300001

ISSN: 2213-0780

eISSN: 2213-0799

Record 8 of 49

Title: Exposure to Nature Sounds through a Mobile Application in Daily Life: Effects on Learning Performance among University Students

Author(s): Luo, JT (Luo, Jiutong); Wang, MH (Wang, Minhong); Chen, BY (Chen, Boyin); Sun, M (Sun, Meng)

Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH  Volume: 19  Issue: 21  Article Number: 14583  DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192114583  Published: NOV 2022  

Abstract: Previous studies have revealed the restorative effects of exposure to natural environments on psychological well-being and cognitive performance. Recent studies have reported the effects of exposure to nature sounds (e.g., the sounds of birds, rainfall, and waves) through a mobile application on reducing students' mental fatigue and improving their cognitive performance. However, it remains unknown whether exposure to nature sounds through a mobile application may influence students' learning performance. To address the gap, we conducted a study with 71 university students. During the four-week intervention, 36 students in the experimental group were exposed to nature sounds through a free mobile application for at least 30 consecutive minutes per day when working on academic-related tasks; 35 students in the control group did not have such exposure when working on similar tasks. The results show that students in the experimental group outperformed those in the control group in their engagement in deep learning, frequency of academic procrastination, and academic self-efficacy. The findings reveal the promising effects of exposure to nature sounds through a mobile application on improving students' learning performance. The implications of the findings are discussed.

Accession Number: WOS:000883891500001

PubMed ID: 36361462

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

sun, meng 



Chen, Boyin 



Wang, Minhong 



Luo, Jiutong 



eISSN: 1660-4601

Record 9 of 49

Title: Brief repeated virtual nature contact for three weeks boosts university students' nature connectedness and psychological and physiological health during the COVID-19 pandemic: A pilot study

Author(s): Lau, SSS (Lau, Sam S. S.); Leung, SSK (Leung, Sharron S. K.); Wong, JWC (Wong, Jonathan W. C.); Lee, TCP (Lee, Terence C. P.); Cartwright, SR (Cartwright, Stephen R. R.); Wong, JTC (Wong, Janet T. C.); Man, JC (Man, Jackie); Cheung, E (Cheung, Ethan); Choi, RPW (Choi, Regene P. W.)

Source: FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH  Volume: 10  Article Number: 1057020  DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.1057020  Published: JAN 12 2023  

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated uncertainties and restrictions have adverse impacts on university students' mental wellbeing. Evidence shows that virtual nature contact has mental health benefits. However, little is known about the potential beneficial health impacts of virtual nature contact during times of social distancing, when access to the natural environment is restricted. This pilot study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a 3-week virtual nature contact in improving nature connectedness and reducing psychophysiological stress. A sample of 56 university students in Hong Kong was randomly assigned to control and nature interventions using 2-D video played for 15 min three times a week for 3 weeks. Nature connectedness, perceived restorativeness and psycho-physiological wellbeing were measured. Our findings show significant changes in psychological stress levels after nature interventions compared with the baseline, including increased happiness and stronger emotions of comfort and relaxation. When compared with the control group, the results show the nature intervention group has significantly higher levels of nature connectedness, happiness, and positive affect, but no significant effects on other psychological and physiological variables (e.g., cardiovascular responses). Our preliminary findings highlight the potential use of virtual nature contacts in bolstering university students' wellbeing at times of pandemic or when in-person visit to the natural environment is not feasible.

Accession Number: WOS:000918432600001

PubMed ID: 36711407

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Lau, Sam 



Wong, Jonathan 



Wong, Jonathan WC 



eISSN: 2296-2565

Record 10 of 49

Title: The effects of closeness to nature, connectedness to nature and eco-friendly behaviours on environmental identity: a study of public university students in South-eastern Turkey

Author(s): Atik, AD (Atik, Ali Derya); Sari, HI (Sari, Halil Ibrahim); Dogan, Y (Dogan, Yakup)

Source: AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION  Volume: 39  Issue:Pages: 80-94  Article Number: PII S0814062622000209  DOI: 10.1017/aee.2022.20  Published: MAR 2023  

Abstract: The assessment of environmental identity (EID) in terms of connectedness to nature, eco-friendly behaviour (EFB) and closeness to nature variables is the central focus of this study. The elaborated conceptual model recommends that closeness to nature, connectedness to nature and EFBs related to education, economy and recycling are potential predictors of EID. The sample consists of 518 college students studying in different teacher education programmes. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the constructive validity of the scales for each of the measurement models. The theoretical path analysis model was created by considering existing literature. In the present study, the EFBs of the participants had a significant and moderate effect on their EID. Findings confirmed that environmental education behaviours and recycling behaviours had a positive and low effect on EFBs. The results showed that connectedness to nature and closeness to nature had a positive and medium effect on EFB. Promotion of EID sense in pre-service teachers will increase their students' EID. Finally, advanced degree curricula in environmental protection and nature can be designed and implemented based on target group information.

Accession Number: WOS:000952353200007

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number




Atik, Ali Derya 



Sari, Halil 






ISSN: 0814-0626

eISSN: 2049-775X

Record 11 of 49

Title: The Scope, Nature, and Impact of Sexual Violence Among Students From a Canadian University: A Random Sample Study

Author(s): Jeffrey, NK (Jeffrey, Nicole K.); Senn, CY (Senn, Charlene Y.); Krieger, MA (Krieger, Michelle A.); Forrest, A (Forrest, Anne)

Source: CANADIAN JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE-REVUE CANADIENNE DES SCIENCES DU COMPORTEMENT  Volume: 55  Issue:Pages: 100-112  DOI: 10.1037/cbs0000329  Early Access Date: MAR 2022   Published: APR 2023  

Abstract: Public Significance Statement This study used best practices for studying a population's sexual violence experiences. It confirmed that Canadian women bear the brunt of sexual violence, usually at the hands of men they know. Like their American counterparts, Canadian women in university are sexually assaulted at much higher rates than men and report more trauma from these experiences than men.
Random sample research is important for documenting the ubiquity and context of sexual violence (SV) on university campuses but has been scant in the Canadian context. We contribute one of the only Canadian university random sample studies since the 1990s. We examined the scope, nature, and impact of SV in a large (N = 977) and diverse random sample of students from one Canadian university. We found that 23.2% of women, 9.6% of men, and 16.7% of nonbinary students reported experiencing SV at least once in the past 12 months. Roughly 6% of both women and men reported perpetrating SV at least once in the past 12 months, and no nonbinary participants reported any perpetration. The findings did not support a fall "red zone" of increased risk of rape and attempted rape for first- and second-year students. Women's victimization did not vary by race, international student status, sexual identity, or disability, but second-year women were at increased risk. Overall, most victims of rape and attempted rape were victimized by a man who was not a student on their campus but was known to them (most often a friend, date, or intimate partner). Rapes and attempted rapes were commonly in someone's home. Women reported significantly greater trauma and academic impact of victimization compared to men. Our results are important for informing future research, prevention, policy, and service provision on Canadian university campuses.

Accession Number: WOS:000763015100001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Senn, Charlene Yvette 



Jeffrey, Nicole 



Krieger, Michelle 



ISSN: 0008-400X

eISSN: 1879-2669

Record 12 of 49

Title: Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Interactive vs. Non-Interactive Virtual Nature on Cognitive Performance and Mental Health in College Students

Author(s): Manchón , FD (Martinez Manchon, Francisco de Asis); Simunic, A (Simunic, Ana)

Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION  DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2023.2235122  Early Access Date: JUL 2023   

Abstract: A quasi-experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of exposure to interactive and non-interactive virtual nature on stress, mood, and cognitive performance among university students. A control group exposed to a white wall was included, and connectedness to nature was added as a potential covariate. The results showed that exposure to virtual nature, especially interactively, had effects on increasing reported happiness and on reducing stress and tenseness. However, there were no effects on energy, calmness, and the digit span test results. The trail test part a and b results were both improved in the post-exposure measurement in the control group, and part b after exposure to nature non-interactively, but not interactively. The results suggest that exposure to nature through virtual reality can have benefits for some indicators of well-being, and further research is needed to identify the underlying mechanisms and potential effects on other aspects of cognitive functioning.

Accession Number: WOS:001027398400001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Simunic, Ana 



Martinez Manchon, Francisco de Asis 



ISSN: 1044-7318

eISSN: 1532-7590

Record 13 of 49

Title: Cumulative Frequency of Nature Dose: How Continuous and Regular Forest Walking Improves Nature Relatedness, Restorativeness, and Learning Engagement in College Students

Author(s): Chou, WY (Chou, Wan-Yu); Hung, SH (Hung, Shih-Han)

Source: SUSTAINABILITY  Volume: 13  Issue: 20  Article Number: 11370  DOI: 10.3390/su132011370  Published: OCT 2021  

Abstract: Forest is a natural resource that provides natural walking as a popular leisure activity for urban residents. From the perspective of "dose of nature ", continuous contact with natural environments and engagement in natural activities can gradually promote positive health benefits. This study aims to explore the "cumulative frequency of nature dose " through regular forest walking. Ten college students were recruited to walk once a week for 30 min in the campus forest. Eight weeks of forest walking experiences were collected by administering questionnaires on nature relatedness, mental health, restorativeness, and learning engagement before the first walk, as well as after the fourth and the eighth walks. The findings of this study revealed that regular forest activities can induce accumulated natural benefits. By taking at least 30 min of forest walks once a week continuously for eight weeks, the subjects improved their mental health, increased learning engagement in school, gained more attention recovery and reflection experiences, and re-established a relationship with nature. In addition, different doses of natural benefits were observed for different cumulative processes.

Accession Number: WOS:000716402500001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Hung, Shih-Han 



Chou, Wan-Yu 



Chou, Wan-Yu 



eISSN: 2071-1050

Record 14 of 49

Title: Understanding the Transient Nature of STEM Doctoral Students' Research Self-Efficacy Across Time: Considering the Role of Gender, Race, and First-Generation College Status

Author(s): Litson, K (Litson, Kaylee); Blaney, JM (Blaney, Jennifer M.); Feldon, DF (Feldon, David F.)

Source: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY  Volume: 12  Article Number: 617060  DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.617060  Published: JAN 26 2021  

Abstract: Developing research self-efficacy is an important part of doctoral student preparation. Despite the documented importance of research self-efficacy, little is known about the progression of doctoral students' research self-efficacy over time in general and for students from minoritized groups. This study examined both within- and between-person stability of research self-efficacy from semester to semester over 4 years, focusing on doctoral students in biological sciences (N = 336). Using random intercept autoregressive analyses, we evaluated differences in stability across gender, racially minoritized student status, and first-generation student status. Results showed similar mean levels of self-efficacy across demographic groups and across time. However, there were notable differences in between-person and within-person stability over time, specifically showing higher between-person and lower within-person stability for racially minoritized and first-generation students. These findings indicate that racially minoritized and first-generation students' research self-efficacy reports were less consistent from semester to semester. Such results may indicate that non-minoritized and continuing-generation students' experiences from semester to semester typically reinforce their beliefs about their own abilities related to conducting research, while such is not the case for racially minoritized nor first-generation students. Future research should examine what types of experiences impact self-efficacy development across doctoral study to offer more precise insights about factors that influence these differences in within-person stability.

Accession Number: WOS:000615982100001

PubMed ID: 33574789

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Feldon, David 



ISSN: 1664-1078

Record 15 of 49

Title: College Students and Nature: Differing Thoughts of Fear, Danger, Disconnection, and Loathing

Author(s): Taylor, DE (Taylor, Dorceta E.)

Source: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT  Volume: 64  Issue:Pages: 79-96  DOI: 10.1007/s00267-019-01172-9  Published: JUL 2019  

Abstract: Despite the existence of a robust body of research that investigates human-nature connections, few scholars have examined what people tend to ponder when they think of nature. The objective of the study is to find out how college and university students think about nature. The study also seeks to identify which factors are most significant in influencing students' thoughts about nature. This paper analyzes racial, gender, class, and academic differences in the way college students think about nature. The study of 287 American students found that respondents thought about a wide range of concepts and ideas when they contemplate nature. This article focuses on the demographic differences in thoughts about fear, danger, and loathing. This set of ideas has been the subject of scholarly research, and the findings presented herein contribute to this body of scholarship. The paper discusses both descriptive and multivariate techniques that are used to explore the topic. The study found that white students are less likely than racial/ethnic minorities to think about disconnection, predators, getting lost, loathsome or hateful places, fear, and danger when they think of nature. However, the results also show that it would be inaccurate to describe racial/ethnic minorities as universally fearful of and disconnected from nature. Moreover, the paper demonstrates that race is not the only explanatory variable that has significant impacts in multivariate modelsthe student's academic interest has significant impacts on thoughts about natural hazards, disconnection, predators, human-made hazards, and loathsome or hateful places. Gender, age, parental education, and first-generation college attendance also has significant impacts on the dependent variables.

Accession Number: WOS:000473207000007

PubMed ID: 31076829

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Taylor, Dorceta E. 



ISSN: 0364-152X

eISSN: 1432-1009

Record 16 of 49

Title: Daily exposure to virtual nature reduces symptoms of anxiety in college students

Author(s): Browning, MHEM (Browning, Matthew H. E. M.); Shin, S (Shin, Seunguk); Drong, G (Drong, Gabrielle); McAnirlin, O (McAnirlin, Olivia); Gagnon, RJ (Gagnon, Ryan J.); Ranganathan, S (Ranganathan, Shyam); Sindelar, K (Sindelar, Kailan); Hoptman, D (Hoptman, David); Bratman, GN (Bratman, Gregory N.); Yuan, S (Yuan, Shuai); Prabhu, VG (Prabhu, Vishnunarayan Girishan); Heller, W (Heller, Wendy)

Source: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS  Volume: 13  Issue:Article Number: 1239  DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-28070-9  Published: JAN 23 2023  

Abstract: Exposure to natural environments offers an array of mental health benefits. Virtual reality provides simulated experiences of being in nature when outdoor access is limited. Previous studies on virtual nature have focused mainly on single "doses" of virtual nature. The effects of repeated exposure remain poorly understood. Motivated by this gap, we studied the influence of a daily virtual nature intervention on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and an underlying cause of poor mental health: rumination. Forty college students (58% non-Hispanic White, median age = 19) were recruited from two U.S. universities and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Over several weeks, anxious arousal (panic) and anxious apprehension (worry) decreased with virtual nature exposure. Participants identifying as women, past VR users, experienced with the outdoors, and engaged with the beauty in nature benefited particularly strongly from virtual nature. Virtual nature did not help symptoms of anhedonic depression or rumination. Further research is necessary to distinguish when and for whom virtual nature interventions impact mental health outcomes.

Accession Number: WOS:000954571900051

PubMed ID: 36690698

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Shin, Seunguk 



Girishan Prabhu, Vishnunarayan 



Shin, Seunguk 



McAnirlin, Olivia 



ISSN: 2045-2322

Record 17 of 49

Title: Campus Nature Rx: How investing in nature interventions benefits college students

Author(s): Rakow, DA (Rakow, Donald A.); Ibes, DC (Ibes, Dorothy C.)

Source: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY  Volume: 13  Article Number: 960370  DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.960370  Published: JUL 25 2022  

Accession Number: WOS:000838144200001

PubMed ID: 35959044

ISSN: 1664-1078

Record 18 of 49

Title: The Unique Nature of Depression and Anxiety among College Students with Adverse Childhood Experiences

Author(s): Watt, T (Watt, Toni); Ceballos, N (Ceballos, Natalie); Kim, S (Kim, Seoyoun); Pan, X (Pan, Xi); Sharma, S (Sharma, Shobhit)

Source: JOURNAL OF CHILD & ADOLESCENT TRAUMA  Volume: 13  Issue:Pages: 163-172  DOI: 10.1007/s40653-019-00270-4  Published: JUN 2020  

Abstract: It is well established that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) contribute to the development of mental disorders in adulthood. However, less is known about how childhood trauma impacts the mind and the body, whether the resulting mental disorders have different characteristics than those occurring without these antecedent conditions, and if treatment modalities need to reflect the unique nature of mental disorders rooted in trauma. Survey and biomarker data were gathered from a sample of college students (n = 93) to explore the relationship between childhood trauma and mental health. We examine how neuroimmune systems (inflammation and neuroplasticity) relate to depression and anxiety and whether these associations vary for those with and without a history of childhood trauma. Findings reveal that students with 4 or more ACEs are more likely to have depression and anxiety than students without these experiences. In addition, we find that inflammation (CRP) and neuronal health (BDNF) are associated with mental health disorders among students with four or more ACEs, but not for students without this history. These findings suggest that mental disorders associated with four or more ACEs may be uniquely tied to physiological processes, and consequently, warrant tailored treatments. The implications for mental health intervention include, 1) screening for childhood trauma, inflammation, and neuronal health and 2) referral to treatments which are theoretically and empirically tied to the root causes of mental disorders rather than those designed merely to suppress their symptoms.

Accession Number: WOS:000542674400004

PubMed ID: 32549928

ISSN: 1936-1521

eISSN: 1936-153X

Record 19 of 49

Title: A pilot study on the potential for formalized nature-based instruction to mitigate stress and increase social bonds in university students

Author(s): Kiers, AH (Kiers, A. Haven); Rakow, DA (Rakow, Donald A.); Parker, S (Parker, Stacey); Dewa, CS (Dewa, Carolyn S.)

Source: JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH  Volume: 71  Issue:Pages: 1596-1603  DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2021.1943412  Early Access Date: JUN 2021   Published: JUN 13 2023  

Abstract: Objective: To seek to find a way to address stress and build social bonds among U.S. college students, an East Coast private institution and a West Coast state institution each offered an undergraduate Nature Rx course. Participants: Seventeen undergraduate students were enrolled in the West Coast state institution seminar, and sixteen undergraduate students were enrolled in the East Coast private institution seminar. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the pilot such that students were given pre- and post-course questionnaires and asked to write reflective essays to describe their experiences in the class. Results: While no significant changes in self-perceived stress were reported in questionnaire items, the qualitative data indicated students attributed their participation in the course with factors that contributed to reduced stress and important social connections. These included a strengthened belief in the value of spending time in nature to reduce stress, the creation and solidification of social bonds, and an expectation that the class would have a lasting impact. Conclusion: Overall, participants indicated they experienced frequent and meaningful interactions with other students and the instructors while gaining greater familiarity with the natural elements of their respective campuses.

Accession Number: WOS:000688040300001

PubMed ID: 34428390

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number




ISSN: 0744-8481

eISSN: 1940-3208

Record 20 of 49

Title: Nature of Science Views and Epistemological Views of College Biology Students

Author(s): Borgerding, L (Borgerding, Lisa); Deniz, H (Deniz, Hasan)

Source: CANADIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE MATHEMATICS AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION  Volume: 19  Issue:Pages: 290-303  DOI: 10.1007/s42330-019-00049-7  Published: SEP 2019  

Abstract: Epistemological views characterise how individuals view the certainty, source and organization of knowledge. Previous research has demonstrated some relationships between epistemological views and nature of science (NOS) views. These relationships may be particularly interesting for biology students who are learning about topics such as evolution which are societally controversial but not scientifically controversial. In this study, we examine the relationship between epistemological views and empirical NOS views for three classes of college biology learners in a Midwestern US university. We used the Learning Contexts Questionnaire to characterise participants' epistemological Perry levels and question 1 of the VNOS-C to characterise their empirical NOS views. Based on a series of chi-square analyses, no relationship between Perry level and empirical NOS views was identified. Significant relationships between empirical NOS views and gender and empirical NOS views and biology class were identified. These findings and implications for future work are discussed. ResumeLes conceptions epistemologiques caracterisent les facons dont les personnes concoivent le degre de certitude, la source et l'organisation des connaissances. Les recherches anterieures ont montre l'existence de certains liens entre les vues epistemologiques et les vues sur la nature des sciences. Ces liens peuvent etre particulierement interessants pour les etudiants de biologie dont l'apprentissage comprend des sujets tels que l'evolution, qui sont controverses sur le plan societal, mais ne sont pas controverses sur le plan scientifique. Dans cette etude, nous analysons les liens entre les points de vue epistemologiques et les points de vue empiriques sur la nature des sciences dans trois classes de biologie au niveau collegial. Nous avons utilise le Questionnaire sur les contextes d'apprentissage pour determiner le niveau epistemologique des participants selon le modele de Perry, et la Question 1 du VNOS-C pour definir leurs points de vue empiriques sur la nature des sciences. Sur la base d'une serie d'analyses chi(2) nous n'avons releve aucun lien entre le niveau de Perry et les points de vue empiriques sur la nature des sciences. Des liens significatifs ont ete releves d'une part entre les points de vue empiriques sur la nature des sciences et le sexe des participants, et d'autre part entre ces points de vue et la classe de biologie. Ces resultats et leurs implications pour des recherches ulterieures sont analyses.

Accession Number: WOS:000477863000006

ISSN: 1492-6156

eISSN: 1942-4051

Record 21 of 49


Author(s): Ustun, UD (Ustun, U. D.); Ustun, NA (Ustun, N. Aktas); Gumusgul, O (Gumusgul, O.); Ari, C (Ari, C.); Erguven, AT (Erguven, A. T.)

Source: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND ECOLOGY  Volume: 23  Issue:Pages: 335-343  Published: 2022  

Abstract: Understanding the effects of outdoor recreational experiences on nature relatedness and environmental attitudes is a key to effective nature management. So, present study aimed to analyse nature relatedness and environmental attitude among university students who participated in outdoor recreation or not. 884 university students, chosen in a random way, voluntarily participated in the study. To collect data, in addition to personal information form nature relatedness scale and environmental attitudes scale were used. In the evaluation of the data, Cronbach' s alpha calculated for all the sub-dimensions and independent samples t-test was used as hypothesis tests alpha = 0.05. According to analysed results, there was no significant difference among participants' (N = 884) nature relatedness, environmental behaviour and environmental thoughts according to participation in outdoor recreation, on the other hand there were significant differences according to whether they had any curriculum lesson about environment. As a conclusion, this study showed that no matter university students participated in outdoor recreation or not, they do not differ in nature connectedness and environmental attitude, however students who took education about environment had more connectedness with nature and environmental behaviour.

Accession Number: WOS:000768263000035

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Üstün, Ümit Doğan 



AKTAS, Neslisah 






ISSN: 1311-5065

Record 22 of 49

Title: EFL College Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of the Nature and Causes of Plagiarism

Author(s): Khoii, R (Khoii, Roya); Atefi, M (Atefi, Mahsa)

Book Group Author(s): PIXEL


Abstract: Plagiarism has recently turned into a major concern for academics and academic institutions. The problem seems to have become so widespread that several types of anti-plagiarism software have been developed to check the originality of scholarly papers and students' assignments. Unfortunately, it appears that this unethical strategy is steadily increasing across college and university students in higher education settings and within other groups such as scholarly and scientific communities, political offices, and journalistic groups. Nevertheless, the reasons continue to be obscure. In reality, available statistical findings do not provide a very clear picture of the scale and nature of plagiarism itself and the problems associated with it. Neither do they clarify the extent to which this phenomenon is changing through time or is different from country to country, from subject to subject, or among undergraduate and graduate students. It is assumed that if students are made aware of the consequences of plagiarism, they will exercise some caution in resorting to it while writing an important paper which is going to be published. Despite the great attention paid to this issue in academic journals and settings, plagiarism still occurs at large, and many students, scholars, and even politicians are still accused of committing it. Some may claim ignorance, and some could be breaking the rule to meet deadlines. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to investigate EFL college teachers' and students' perceptions of the nature and causes of plagiarism. The participants consisted of 20 EFL university professors and 40 university students studying TEFL at MA and PhD levels. They received a Likert-Scale 30-item questionnaire enquiring about the nature of plagiarism in the view of the respondents and their attitude in this regard. The results demonstrated that both groups were equally aware of the nature of plagiarism and the related ethical issues, while the students had considerably different standpoints regarding the excuses and punishments for plagiarism.

Accession Number: WOS:000471904400027

Conference Title: 11th International Conference on Innovation in Language Learning

Conference Date: NOV 08-09, 2018

Conference Location: Florence, ITALY

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Khoii, Roya 



Khoii, Roya 



ISBN: 978-88-85813-21-2

Record 23 of 49

Title: Group Nature-Based Mindfulness Interventions: Nature-Based Mindfulness Training for College Students with Anxiety

Author(s): Vitagliano, LA (Vitagliano, Luke A.); Wester, KL (Wester, Kelly L.); Jones, CT (Jones, Connie T.); Wyrick, DL (Wyrick, David L.); Vermeesch, AL (Vermeesch, Amber L.)

Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH  Volume: 20  Issue:Article Number: 1451  DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20021451  Published: JAN 2023  

Abstract: The mental health crisis across college campuses is accelerating, with anxiety listed as the top mental health issue for undergraduate college students. Although evidence suggests the COVID-19 pandemic escalated the mental health crisis on college campuses, pre-COVID-19 anxiety among college students was on the rise. Research supports Mindfulness Based Interventions (MBIs) to reduce anxiety among college students. Additionally, exposure to natural environments, which are accessible to students on college campuses, is effective in reducing anxiety. While brief nature-based mindfulness interventions appear effective in reducing anxiety among college students, these interventions are often offered in isolation without social interaction among group members and lack intentional integration of mindfulness and nature-related theories. The purpose of this work is to describe a framework for integrating the use of Mindfulness and Attention Restoration Theory (ART) in an innovative psychoeducational group intervention, Nature-Based Mindfulness Training (c) (NBMT), for college students with anxiety. In conclusion, we argue for the need to intentionally integrate mindfulness and nature into nature-based mindfulness interventions as an effective and sustainable means to reduce anxiety. Limitations and areas for future research are described.

Accession Number: WOS:000920314400001

PubMed ID: 36674206

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Wester, Kelly 



Vermeesch, Amber 



Vitagliano, Luke 



eISSN: 1660-4601

Record 24 of 49

Title: Awe in Nature Heals: Evidence From Military Veterans, At-Risk Youth, and College Students

Author(s): Anderson, CL (Anderson, Craig L.); Monroy, M (Monroy, Maria); Keltner, D (Keltner, Dacher)

Source: EMOTION  Volume: 18  Issue:Pages: 1195-1202  DOI: 10.1037/emo0000442  Published: DEC 2018  

Abstract: The power of nature to both heal and inspire awe has been noted by many great thinkers. However, no study has examined how the impact of nature on well-being and stress-related symptoms is explained by experiences of awe. In the present investigation, we examine this process in studies of extraordinary and everyday nature experiences. In Study 1, awe experienced by military veterans and youth from underserved communities while whitewater rafting, above and beyond all the other positive emotions measured, predicted changes in well-being and stress-related symptoms one week later. In Study 2, the nature experiences that undergraduate students had during their everyday lives led to more awe, which mediated the effect of nature experience on improvements in well-being. We discuss how accounting for people's emotional experiences during outdoors activities can increase our understanding of how nature impacts people's well-being.

Accession Number: WOS:000451771500011

PubMed ID: 29927260

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Anderson, Craig L. 



ISSN: 1528-3542

eISSN: 1931-1516

Record 25 of 49

Title: Screen time and mental health in college students: Time in nature as a protective factor

Author(s): Deyo, A (Deyo, Alexa); Wallace, J (Wallace, Josh); Kidwell, KM (Kidwell, Katherine M.)

Source: JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH  DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2022.2151843  Early Access Date: JAN 2023   

Abstract: Objective: To examine how time spent on handheld screens was related to internalizing mental health symptoms in college students and whether time spent in nature was associated with fewer mental health symptoms. Participants: Three hundred seventy-two college students (M-age = 19.47 +/- 1.74, 63.8% female; 62.8% college freshman). Methods: College students completed questionnaires for research credit in their psychology courses. Results: Screen time significantly predicted higher anxiety, depression, and stress. Spending time outdoors ("green time") significantly predicted lower stress and depression, but not lower anxiety. Green time moderated the relationship, such that college students who spent less time outside (1SD below mean) had consistent rates of mental health symptoms across hours of screentime, but individuals who spent average/above average (mean, 1SD above mean) time outside had fewer mental health symptoms at lower levels of screentime. Conclusions: Promoting green time in students may be an effective way of improving stress and depression.

Accession Number: WOS:000937966500001

PubMed ID: 36796079

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

, Alexa Deyo 



ISSN: 0744-8481

eISSN: 1940-3208

Record 26 of 49

Title: Is nature relatedness associated with better mental health? An exploratory study on Vietnamese university students

Author(s): Nguyen, CTP (Cat Tuong Phuoc Nguyen); Nguyen, QAN (Quynh-Anh Ngoc Nguyen)

Source: JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH  DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2022.2089847  Early Access Date: JUN 2022   

Abstract: Objective This study aims to examine the relationship between nature relatedness (NR) on subjective positive well-being (life satisfaction) and mental disorders (depression, stress, and anxiety) in Vietnamese university students. Participants 340 Hue University students voluntarily took part in the survey. Methods The Nature Relatedness Scale, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale were used. Bivariate correlation, single regression, and moderation analysis were conducted to investigate the relationship between NR and the mental health of university students and the moderating role of NR. Results Higher levels of NR significantly predicted higher levels of life satisfaction but did not significantly predict fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. NR significantly moderated the link between life satisfaction and depression, anxiety, and stress. Conclusions The findings of this study imply that efforts to enhance students' mental health should include efforts to promote their NR.

Accession Number: WOS:000815407700001

PubMed ID: 35737974

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Nguyen, Anh 



Nguyen Phuoc, Cat Tuong 



ISSN: 0744-8481

eISSN: 1940-3208

Record 27 of 49

Title: Secondary and University Students' Descriptions of Quantum Uncertainty and the Wave Nature of Quantum Particles

Author(s): Boe, MV (Boe, Maria Vetleseter); Viefers, S (Viefers, Susanne)

Source: SCIENCE & EDUCATION  Volume: 32  Issue:Pages: 297-326  DOI: 10.1007/s11191-021-00297-w  Early Access Date: NOV 2021   Published: APR 2023  

Abstract: Teaching and learning of quantum physics at secondary level is an active field of research. One important challenge is finding ways to promote understanding of quantum concepts without the mathematical formalism that is embedded in quantum mechanics but unavailable on the secondary level. We investigated Norwegian secondary students' (N = 291) descriptions of the wave nature of quantum particles and the uncertainty principle, as expressed during work with learning resources using a sociocultural approach emphasizing history, philosophy, and nature of science aspects. Responses from university students (N = 40) given after a formalism-based course in quantum physics were included for comparison. Themes were identified using thematic analysis and analyzed from the perspective of pedagogical link-making, seeing different themes as representing different levels of explanations of the concepts (phenomenological, qualitative, mathematical). The most dominant theme in descriptions of particle wave nature was that particles exhibit wave behavior in experiments, while referring to the mathematical description of particles by wave functions was a less prominent theme, even among university students. Two uncertainty principle themes were found: uncertainty as inability to measure pairs of variables precisely, and uncertainty as innate blurriness in nature. Largely missing from descriptions of both concepts were meaningful links between different levels of explanations. Based on the results, we discuss ways forward for teaching particle wave nature and uncertainty in secondary education.

Accession Number: WOS:000722970600001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Boe, Maria Vetleseter 



ISSN: 0926-7220

eISSN: 1573-1901

Record 28 of 49

Title: What socio-demographic characteristics of university students in Southern Germany predict their urban nature connectedness?

Author(s): Schoenbach, DMI (Schoenbach, Dorothea M. I.); Tiscareno-Osorno, X (Tiscareno-Osorno, Ximena); MacIntyre, TE (MacIntyre, Tadhg E.); Smith, S (Smith, Stephen); MacIntyre, D (MacIntyre, Deirdre); Demetriou, Y (Demetriou, Yolanda)

Source: PLOS ONE  Volume: 17  Issue:DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0272344  Published: 2022  

Abstract: Promoting mental health addresses a global societal challenge. Nature connectedness, or relatedness to natural systems, is associated with increased well-being and mental health. Among urban populations, nature connectedness has been reported as lower. Nature connectedness in urban settings has been somewhat overlooked by researchers. This cross-sectional online study addressed this issue by identifying socio-demographic predictors of urban nature connectedness among 165 students, aged 20 to 40, from the Technical University of Munich. Analysis of the data from 153 female university students was conducted using ordinal regressions, (a) separately and (b) merged with their 12 male counterparts. A separate gender analysis for males could not be performed, due to sample size limitations. Although access to nature and a considerable nature dose in terms of frequency and duration of nature contact were noted, possibly achieved through the engagement in outdoor activities, urban nature connectedness was rather low. Results showed that urban nature connectedness was negatively predicted by living in a rural area and positively predicted by engagement in outdoor activities and increased hours per week spent in nature. This information can help researchers operationalize the construct of urban nature connectedness. Furthermore, it can aid the development of interventions aimed at promoting urban nature connectedness, by encouraging urban inhabitants to (repeatedly) get in contact with and spend time in provided high-quality urban nature (e.g., during outdoor activities). To draw conclusions about causality, further research is required to identify a clear cause-effect relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and urban nature connectedness. Based on a researched dose-response relationship, a(n) (inter)national recommendation for the duration of nature contact should be established to promote urban nature connectedness and, therewith, health in urban inhabitants. Future research should also investigate further potential individual influencing factors, as well as gender and within/between-country differences among urban inhabitants.

Accession Number: WOS:000839311900040

PubMed ID: 35921378

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Schonbach, Dorothea 



ISSN: 1932-6203

Record 29 of 49

Title: Unraveling the Relationship between Well-Being, Sustainable Consumption and Nature Relatedness: a Study of University Students

Author(s): Redondo, R (Redondo, Raquel); Valor, C (Valor, Carmen); Carrero, I (Carrero, Isabel)

Source: APPLIED RESEARCH IN QUALITY OF LIFE  Volume: 17  Issue:Pages: 913-930  DOI: 10.1007/s11482-021-09931-9  Early Access Date: APR 2021   Published: APR 2022  

Abstract: Many empirical studies have found an association between sustainable consumption and well-being. However, the direction of causality between these constructs remains unclear. Well-being could be an antecedent of sustainable consumption or, sustainable consumption a driver of well-being; also, there could be a reciprocal relationship between these two constructs. Alternatively, both well-being and sustainable consumption could be outcomes of another construct that could be masking a relationship between well-being and sustainable consumption. This study aims to advance the well-being and sustainable consumption research by testing these three relationships in a longitudinal study with young consumers (n = 369). The findings show that when controlling for the constructs at Time 1, the relationship between the focal constructs is no longer significant. Results lead to support the hypothesis that sustainable consumption and well-being are explained by a particular trait of the individual, nature relatedness, so that individuals with greater nature relatedness are more likely to adopt a sustainable lifestyle and have greater well-being. Nature relatedness thus acts as a predictor of both focal constructs. This result implies that by nurturing nature relatedness, societies will achieve the double dividend of well-being and sustainability.

Accession Number: WOS:000640155800001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Carrero, Isabel 



valor, carmen 



Redondo Palomo, Raquel 



ISSN: 1871-2584

eISSN: 1871-2576

Record 30 of 49

Title: How Do University Students Perceive the Nature of Science?

Author(s): Akgun, S (Akgun, Selin); Kaya, E (Kaya, Ebru)

Source: SCIENCE & EDUCATION  Volume: 29  Issue:Pages: 299-330  DOI: 10.1007/s11191-020-00105-x  Early Access Date: MAR 2020   Published: APR 2020  

Abstract: The paper presents an empirical study on university students' perceptions of nature of science (NOS). NOS is framed in terms of the cognitive, epistemic, and social-institutional systems of science based on the Family Resemblance Approach (FRA) (Erduran and Dagher 2014; Irzik and Nola 2014; Irzik and Nola, SCED 20:591-607, 2011). FRA includes the following categories: aims and values of science, scientific practices, scientific methods, scientific knowledge, and social-institutional aspects of science. A study was conducted with 15 university students from science and non-science majors at a public university in Turkey. Individual interviews were conducted, and qualitative data analysis was carried out. The educational adaptation of FRA was previously referred to as RFN (or the Reconceptualised FRA to NOS) (Kaya and Erduran, SCED, 25(9-10):1115-1133, 2016). In this study, categories of RFN were identified in students' responses. The results show that non-science majors (e.g., philosophy, sociology) have an enhanced perception of NOS in comparison to science majors (e.g., physics, computer engineering). It is also observed that university students were not explicitly aware of different aspects of NOS and their perceptions do not represent a holistic account. The study suggests that RFN can be used as a framework to explore university students' perceptions of NOS and their perceptions of NOS are linked to their domain-specific educational background.

Accession Number: WOS:000521882100001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Kaya, Ebru 



Akgun, Selin 



Kaya, Ebru 



ISSN: 0926-7220

eISSN: 1573-1901

Record 31 of 49

Title: Analysing the Relationship between University Students' Ecological Footprint and Their Connection with Nature and Pro-Environmental Attitude

Author(s): Fernández, M (Fernandez, Monica); Cebrián, G (Cebrian, Gisela); Regadera, E (Regadera, Elisa); Fernández, MY (Yolanda Fernandez, M.)

Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH  Volume: 17  Issue: 23  Article Number: 8826  DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17238826  Published: DEC 2020  

Abstract: In the last decade, universities worldwide have adopted various measures intended to promote sustainability in higher education and include it in the curriculum. However, although this paradigm shift appears to be contributing to students' acquisition of the knowledge, skills and values necessary to fight for a more sustainable world, serious global crises such as the present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic oblige us to rethink our behaviour and spur us to accelerate the move towards a deep-seated commitment to the environment and people. Therefore, the aims of this study were (a) to explore consumption habits in students at four Spanish universities by analysing their individual ecological footprint (EF); (b) to develop indices of connection with nature and a pro-environmental attitude and to determine relationships between these indices and students' consumption. Among other factors, our results showed that private university students have a higher EF than public university students; that food consumption has the greatest impact on individuals' EF; and that those who consume more sustainably do not show a more pro-environmental attitude or feel a greater connection with nature. Therefore, we conclude that there was no apparent direct relationship between study participants' convictions and their daily behaviour. There is a pressing need in education to demonstrate the connection between our actions and their environmental impact.

Accession Number: WOS:000597511800001

PubMed ID: 33261045

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Regadera, Elisa 



Regadera, Elisa ER 



Cebrián, Gisela 



Fernández Ramos, María Yolanda 



Morilla, Fernandez 



eISSN: 1660-4601

Record 32 of 49

Title: Gender Differences in Connection to Nature, Outdoor Preferences, and Nature-Based Recreation Among College Students in Brazil and the United States

Author(s): Rosa, CD (Rosa, Claudio D.); Larson, LR (Larson, Lincoln R.); Collado, S (Collado, Silvia); Cloutier, S (Cloutier, Scott); Profice, CC (Profice, Christiana Cabicieri)

Source: LEISURE SCIENCES  Volume: 45  Issue:Pages: 135-155  DOI: 10.1080/01490400.2020.1800538  Early Access Date: JUL 2020   Published: FEB 17 2023  

Abstract: Nature-based recreation (NBR) can enhance human health and promote conservation. As a result, there is a growing interest in the drivers of NBR. In two separate surveys of college students in Brazil (N = 224) and the United States (N = 207), we found that young adults with stronger connection to nature (CN) have a greater preference for outdoor environments to recreate and that these preferences are associated with more frequent participation in NBR. Fostering connection to nature could therefore alter recreation preferences and enhance NBR. We also discovered gender differences in CN, recreation setting preferences and NBR participation. While women were more connected to nature and tended to prefer outdoor environments to recreate, they were less likely than men to engage in NBR. These relationships were consistent across both countries, raising concerns about gender equity in the outdoors that transcend geographical and cultural contexts.

Accession Number: WOS:000555246300001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Collado, Silvia 



Collado, Silvia 



Rosa, Claudio 



Larson, Lincoln 



ISSN: 0149-0400

eISSN: 1521-0588

Record 33 of 49

Title: Between the Library and Lectures: How Can Nature Be Integrated Into University Infrastructure to Improve Students' Mental Health

Author(s): Boyd, F (Boyd, Francesca)

Source: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY  Volume: 13  Article Number: 865422  DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.865422  Published: JUN 17 2022  

Abstract: The university campus provides the backdrop to a student's education and social journey. For many students, the transition from secondary school through to graduation can be one of upheaval, geographical, financial and social change. Evidence suggests increasing levels of mental health difficulties among UK university students. The university campus is a possible resource to mitigate wellbeing issues through facilitating the salutogenic effects of engagement with nature. This mixed method research examines the opportunity to integrate nature through interventions for University of Sheffield undergraduate students. It uses a green prescription style activity and a specially designed mobile phone app. Through focus groups the participants' experience reveals the necessity for a whole university approach that considers intervention and campus design simultaneously. This study's findings qualify research into young adult's experience of urban green spaces and their tangible connection to plants such as trees. Policy and practice implications include the requirement for a coherent approach to understanding the place-attachment aspects to nature in the university environment. Further afield, there is a need for collaborative wellbeing interventions and urban green space development within the UK context.

Accession Number: WOS:000820835600001

PubMed ID: 35795442

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Boyd, Francesca 



ISSN: 1664-1078

Record 34 of 49

Title: Perceptions of the nature of university learner support practices: Staff and students' voices

Author(s): Ouma, R (Ouma, Richard)

Source: COGENT EDUCATION  Volume:Issue:Article Number: 1812473  DOI: 10.1080/2331186X.2020.1812473  Published: JAN 1 2020  

Abstract: The incorporation of staff and students' views is so central in the transformation of learner support management and delivery in distance education. This study explored the staff and students' perceptions of the nature of learner support in distance education at Uganda Martyrs University in Uganda. The study used a qualitative research approach involving focus groups and in-depth interviews with selected university students and staff. The study results showed that the nature of learner support services focused on; academic advising, library and technology, counselling and career, communication and administrative services. The results provide valuable information on how to strategize learner support planning in distance education by synthesising and incorporating the voices of the students and staff. University administrators need to address the staff and students' concerns about learner support to nurture a sustainable quality support culture.

Accession Number: WOS:000564278600001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Ouma, Richard 



ISSN: 2331-186X

Record 35 of 49

Title: The influence of narrative transportation on university students' environmental intentions: A serial mediation of empathy with nature and environmental Attitudes

Author(s): Liu, JX (Liu, Jia-Xin)

Source: JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION  Volume: 431  Article Number: 139763  DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.139763  Published: DEC 15 2023  

Abstract: This paper aims to explain how narrative transportation influences the environmental intentions of university students at five universities in Hebei, China. It also examines the mediating roles of empathy with nature and environmental attitudes, as well as the serial role. A survey was conducted involving 347 university students to test the proposed hypotheses. This was followed by a qualitative approach that involved examining interviews. The study findings indicate that narrative transportation directly and indirectly influences environmental intentions. Additionally, empathy with nature and environmental attitudes have an indirect impact on environmental intentions through the serial role, enhancing environmental intentions. The novelty of this research model lies in the environmental education-centered operationalization of narrative transportation theory. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this study contributes to a better understanding of the proposed relationships and offers concrete suggestions for educational practices.

Accession Number: WOS:001123632800001

ISSN: 0959-6526

eISSN: 1879-1786

Record 36 of 49


Author(s): Algarni, NA (Algarni, Norah A.); Alahmad, NS (Alahmad, Nidhal Sh.)

Source: JOURNAL OF BALTIC SCIENCE EDUCATION  Volume: 22  Issue:Pages: 204-214  DOI: 10.33225/jbse/23.22.204  Published: 2023  

Abstract: Understanding nature of science (NOS) is a fundamental goal in science education standards. Due to the role of specialised and educational teachers' preparation programmes in developing their NOS concepts, this study aims to identify views on NOS and attitudes toward teaching NOS among Saudi undergraduate chemistry students and the differences between them according to their academic level and university affiliation. Views on science and education questionnaire were distributed among chemistry students in eight universities. Results found inaccurate views regarding the differences between theories and laws, and that pertaining to well-trained scientists as being detached from personal, social, and cultural values. Half of the sample disagreed on inventing theories and laws and the diversity of Scientists' methods and also rejected teaching a variety of methods and the influence of personal beliefs on Scientists' observations. No significant differences among students' views by academic level or universities were found, except that second-level students have more informed views than fifth-level students, and the UHB and JU students' views were more informed than IMSIU students. The authors recommend developing those NOS concepts which students had shortcomings in the sequential teachers' preparation programmes and suggest recognising chemistry department faculty members' attitudes to developing students' NOS concepts.

Accession Number: WOS:000993417600003

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Alahmad, Nidhal 



ISSN: 1648-3898

Record 37 of 49

Title: UK and Australian University Students' Perceptions of the Nature of Sexual Assault and Intervening Behavior

Author(s): Labhardt, D (Labhardt, Danielle); Brown, S (Brown, Sarah); Holdsworth, E (Holdsworth, Emma); Mckillop, N (Mckillop, Nadine); Howat, DJ (Howat, Douglas James); Jones, C (Jones, Christian)

Source: JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE  DOI: 10.1177/08862605231212171  Early Access Date: NOV 2023   

Abstract: Sexual assault is a global problem, with the risk highest among university students. Bystander intervention preventing sexual assaults has primarily been researched using quantitative methods to understand what factors influence it. However, both sexual assault and bystander intervention are complex with many subtle and overlapping issues that, when analyzed qualitatively, can offer new insights. The current study aimed to explore and develop a nuanced and comprehensive understanding of students' perceptions of sexual assault and bystander intervention across two universities, one in the United Kingdom and one in Australia. Thirty-nine university students (19 in the United Kingdom; 20 in Australia) took part in one-to-one semistructured interviews. Using inductive thematic analysis, two overarching themes were identified: (a) navigating the complex dynamics of sexual assault; and (b) decisions to intervene or not to intervene. Findings suggest that the complexity and ambiguity around sexual assault can forestall bystander intervention. As such, increasing education, awareness, and discussions around sexual assault and bystander intervention is vital to increase awareness of the problem and mobilize action from bystanders to prevent sexual assault.

Accession Number: WOS:001101190200001

PubMed ID: 37961902

ISSN: 0886-2605

eISSN: 1552-6518

Record 38 of 49

Title: Beliefs about the Nature of Forgiveness and Avoidance of an Offender among Chinese College Students

Author(s): Yi, ZY (Yi, Zhaoyue); Wu, D (Wu, Di); Deng, ML (Deng, Mianlin)

Source: BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES  Volume: 13  Issue:Article Number: 747  DOI: 10.3390/bs13090747  Published: SEP 2023  

Abstract: Previous research on beliefs about the nature of forgiveness (unconditional and conditional) has focused on their effects on health and well-being. However, little is known about how they influence victims' responses to interpersonal offenses. Given that avoidance is a common response to offenses during early adulthood, this study investigated the relationships between beliefs in unconditional and conditional forgiveness and avoidance of an offender among Chinese college students, the mediating role of forgiveness, and the moderating role of whether or not the offender explains the offense. Participants were 423 Chinese college students. They were asked to recall an unforgettable incident in which another person had offended them, and then completed the following measures: the offender's explanation, the belief in unconditional/conditional forgiveness, forgiveness, and avoidance of the offender. The study found that: (1) Victims' belief in unconditional forgiveness negatively predicts their avoidance of an offender, whereas their belief in conditional forgiveness positively predicts the avoidance of an offender. (2) Forgiveness mediates the relationships between beliefs in unconditional and conditional forgiveness and avoidance of an offender. (3) The offender's explanation moderates the relationships between the belief in conditional forgiveness and forgiveness, as well as avoidance of an offender.

Accession Number: WOS:001072572400001

PubMed ID: 37754025

eISSN: 2076-328X

Record 39 of 49

Title: Measuring the extent and nature of use of Social Networking Sites in Medical Education (SNSME) by university students: Results of a multi-center study

Author(s): Guraya, SY (Guraya, Salman Yousuf); Almaramhy, H (Almaramhy, Hamdi); Al-Qahtani, MF (Al-Qahtani, Mona Faisal); Guraya, SS (Guraya, Shaista Salman); Bouhaimed, M (Bouhaimed, Manal); Bilal, B (Bilal, B.)

Source: MEDICAL EDUCATION ONLINE  Volume: 23  Issue:Article Number: 1505400  DOI: 10.1080/10872981.2018.1505400  Published: AUG 7 2018  

Abstract: There is a sharp rise in the use of social networking sites (SNSs) by university students for various purposes. However, little is known about the use of SNSs for educational purposes. This study aims to determine educational use of SNSs by the medical students of two Saudi and a Kuwaiti medical school. A cross-sectional study was conducted by administering a 20-statement questionnaire to the undergraduate medical and allied health sciences students of two Saudi universities: Taibah University (TU) and Imam Abdulrahman AlFaisal University (IAFU), and one Kuwaiti university, Kuwait University (KU). The data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 20. Of a total of 1312 respondents, 1181 (90%) students used SNSs and 131 (10%) did not use SNSs for any reason. Further, only 442/1181 (37%, p < 0.00) students used SNSs for education and found these sites to be useful. As many as 357 (27%) students used SNSs for sharing education-related information once a day, 306 (23%) 3-5 times a day, and 331 (25%) once a week. A maximum of 678 (52%) used Facebook for educational purpose and most of the students, 469 (38%), used SNSs for sharing lectures. There were significant variations in responses among genders and year of schooling. The use of online social media in medical education is a rapidly evolving arena of scholarship. Low use of SNSs for sharing information and significant variations in perceptions of medical students about social media should draw attention of policy-makers for promoting awareness and educational reforms.

Accession Number: WOS:000441056700001

PubMed ID: 30081773

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Bilal, . 



Almaramhy, Hamdi 



Guraya, Salman 



Al-Qahtani, Mona F 



Guraya, Salman 



Salman, Shaista 



Guraya, Shaista Salman Salman 



Al-Qahtani, Mona 



ISSN: 1087-2981

Record 40 of 49

Title: The Nature of Scientific Explanation: Examining the perceptions of the nature, quality, and "goodness" of explanation among college students, science teachers, and scientists

Author(s): Alameh, S (Alameh, Sahar); Abd-El-Khalick, F (Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad); Brown, D (Brown, David)

Source: JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING  Volume: 60  Issue:Pages: 100-135  DOI: 10.1002/tea.21792  Early Access Date: JUL 2022   Published: JAN 2023  

Abstract: Issues regarding scientific explanation have been of interest to philosophers from Pre-Socratic times. The notion of scientific explanation is of interest not only to philosophers, but also to science educators as is clearly evident in the emphasis given to K-12 students' construction of explanations in current national science education reform efforts. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of research on conceptualizing explanation in science education. Using a philosophically guided framework-the Nature of Scientific Explanation (NOSE) framework-the study aims to elucidate and compare college freshmen science students', secondary science teachers', and practicing scientists' scientific explanations and their views of scientific explanations. In particular, this study aims to: (1) analyze students', teachers', and scientists' scientific explanations; (2) explore the nuances about how freshman students, science teachers, and practicing scientists construct explanations; and (3) elucidate the criteria that participants use in analyzing scientific explanations. In two separate interviews, participants first constructed explanations of everyday scientific phenomena and then provided feedback on the explanations constructed by other participants. Major findings showed that, when analyzed using NOSE framework, participant scientists did significantly "better" than teachers and students. Our analysis revealed that scientists, teachers, and students share a lot of similarities in how they construct their explanations in science. However, they differ in some key dimensions. The present study highlighted the need articulated by many researchers in science education to understand additional aspects specific to scientific explanation. The present findings provide an initial analytical framework for examining students' and science teachers' scientific explanations.

Accession Number: WOS:000825389300001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad 



Alameh, Sahar 



ISSN: 0022-4308

eISSN: 1098-2736

Record 41 of 49

Title: Nature of Mental Image of University Students on Social Media: Facebook as a Model

Author(s): AlKhudari, MN (AlKhudari, Majed Numan)

Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN MATHEMATICS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY  Volume: 11  Issue:Pages: 527-541  DOI: 10.46328/ijemst.3192  Published: 2023  

Abstract: Social media networks have become a prominent role in forming social relations, especially among university students, the transmission of information, the circulation of data, and the spread of topics among students and all members of society. In addition, these networks reflect how people think, their lifestyles, and what issues they think about. Through them, we can study the prevailing behavior patterns, including the stereotypical or mental image of Syrian students in Jordan. Therefore, the current study aimed to identify the nature of the mental image of Syrian students in Jordanian universities as reflected by social media and to know the mental image in its various economic, political, and entertainment aspects that social media reflects on Syrian students. Also, the study looked at revealing patterns of social media use among students. The study followed the descriptive approach to achieve these objectives. A questionnaire was used on a sample of Jordanian university students. The results concluded that the Syrian students in Jordan live in good conditions and are treated well by the people of Jordan. Also, students in Jordanian universities do not differentiate between students according to their nationalities. Syrian students only suffer from poor material living conditions and suffer bad psychological conditions because of immigration and leaving their homelands. The material assistance provided by international organizations can significantly alleviate their suffering, and the image formed about them among the Jordanian people is a good one. Finally, Jordan did not witness any negative actions by these students. Rather, they reflected the good image of the Syrian Arab student. In light of the results, the study presented some recommendations and suggestions.

Accession Number: WOS:000925007100014

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

AlKhudari, majed 



ISSN: 2147-611X

Record 42 of 49


Author(s): Reddy, L (Reddy, Leelakrishna)

Edited by: Chova LG; Martinez AL; Torres IC

Source: 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND INNOVATION (ICERI2018)  Book Series: ICERI Proceedings  Pages: 10544-10547  Published: 2018  

Abstract: A physics laboratory holds an important place in the Science Education curriculum and it is a place where meaningful experimental investigations unfolds. Once students are engaged in experimental work, they have an opportunity of developing a better understanding of the beliefs about the nature and importance of experimental work. In order to measure such beliefs, use is made of a research-based assessment tool called the "Colorado Attitudes about Science Survey" (E-CLASS) for experimental physics work. In particular, the beliefs about the nature of experimental work of three Engineering groups of students from a South African university is used in this survey. To obtain an expert-like view of the assessments, the views of three teachers were also taken into consideration. Results reveal views about the nature of experimental work to be largely positive from both the students and teachers in this survey. In particular, there were high levels of agreement for items relating to correct experimental procedures, use of relevant equations in physics, the importance of group work dynamics and the role played by experimental physics in promoting scientific growth. Further, this research points to the value of experimental work in the enrichment of scientific knowledge.

Accession Number: WOS:000568991700078

Conference Title: 11th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI)

Conference Date: NOV 12-14, 2018

Conference Location: Seville, SPAIN

ISSN: 2340-1095

ISBN: 978-84-09-05948-5

Record 43 of 49

Title: An Examination of University Students' Views of the Nature of Science Based on Their Epistemological Beliefs

Author(s): Özgür, SD (Ozgur, Sinem Dincol); Temel, S (Temel, Senar)

Source: YUKSEKOGRETIM DERGISI  Volume: 11  Issue:Pages: 438-444  DOI: 10.2399/yod.20.656321  Part:Published: AUG 2021  

Abstract: This study aims to examine the scientific epistemological beliefs of university students and to analyze their views on the nature of science on the basis of these beliefs. A total of 161 university students from a public university participated voluntarily in the study. The Scientific Epistemological Beliefs Survey and The Nature of Science View Scale (NOSVS) were used as the data collection tools. The data analysis revealed that 88.2% of the students hold a traditional conception of science and 11.8% of them have a non-traditional conception of science. Also, the analysis of their nature of science views showed that 49.7% of them have a contemporary, while 50.3% have a transitional view of the nature of science. In addition, it was found that factor and total scores of students' nature of science views have a statically significant difference, depending on their traditional and non-traditional conception of science. This finding can be interpreted as a significant relationship between scientific epistemological beliefs and views about the nature of science.

Accession Number: WOS:000692685000006

ISSN: 2146-796X

eISSN: 2146-7978

Record 44 of 49

Title: Connection to nature of university students in the environmental field-An empirical study in 41 countries

Author(s): Kleespies, MW (Kleespies, Matthias Winfried); Dierkes, PW (Dierkes, Paul Wilhelm)

Source: BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION  Volume: 283  Article Number: 110093  DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2023.110093  Early Access Date: APR 2023   Published: JUL 2023  

Abstract: People's personal relationships with nature are seen as essential factors influencing environmental behavior. Although human-nature relationships have been a recurring research topic in a wide range of disciplines, there has been a lack of comparative international studies. A particularly important group in this context are students in the field of environment and sustainability, as they are likely to become future decision-makers in society. Therefore, this study takes an international approach across 41 countries to examine the personal human-nature relationship, the connection to nature, of students in the field of environment and sustainability. For the survey, an online questionnaire was used, which was distributed by e-mail to different universities in each country. The connection to nature scores of each country were correlated with country-specific wealth indicators to determine how wealth and connection to nature are related. The results show that the connection to nature of the surveyed students in the different countries is in a medium to high range. It was found that in wealthier countries the connection to nature is weaker than in less wealthy countries.

Accession Number: WOS:000991291700001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Dierkes, Paul 



ISSN: 0006-3207

eISSN: 1873-2917

Record 45 of 49

Title: Science Parks and talent attraction management: university students as a strategic resource for innovation and entrepreneurship

Author(s): Löfsten, H (Lofsten, Hans); Klofsten, M (Klofsten, Magnus); Cadorin, E (Cadorin, Eduardo)

Source: EUROPEAN PLANNING STUDIES  Volume: 28  Issue: 12  Pages: 2465-2488  DOI: 10.1080/09654313.2020.1722986  Early Access Date: FEB 2020   Published: DEC 1 2020  

Abstract: This paper aims to expand our understanding of talent attraction management in Science Parks with a specific interest in university students/alumni as a human and strategic resource. The underlying rationale is how the links with universities can be supported and how the Science Park management can contribute to successful relationships with universities and university students/alumni, in order to develop tenant firms and the park itself. A questionnaire was sent out in 2018-120 parks. This study includes 25 variables, and four significant regression models are presented. The main finding is that Science Park talent attraction activities act as a mediating variable, which affects the informal and formal partnerships between students and firms/universities as well as how the park management can contribute to successful relationships. By attracting students, tenant firms can have a positive impact on their performance as well as Science Park development.

Accession Number: WOS:000512923800001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Klofsten, Magnus 



Löfsten, Hans 



Cadorin, Eduardo 



ISSN: 0965-4313

eISSN: 1469-5944

Record 46 of 49

Title: Using the Multi-Theory Model (MTM) of Health Behavior Change to Explain Intentional Outdoor Nature Contact Behavior among College Students

Author(s): Sharma, M (Sharma, Manoj); Largo-Wight, E (Largo-Wight, Erin); Kanekar, A (Kanekar, Amar); Kusumoto, H (Kusumoto, Hana); Hooper, S (Hooper, Stephanie); Nahar, VK (Nahar, Vinayak K.)

Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH  Volume: 17  Issue: 17  Article Number: 6104  DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17176104  Published: SEP 2020  

Abstract: Nature contact is an emerging health behavior and is defined as the interaction between human beings and animals, plants, natural scenic views, or outdoor activities. Studies have shown that exposure to the outdoors (as a means of contact with nature) reduces perceived stress and promotes health and wellbeing among varying populations in many settings. To date, however, there are few studies exploring the impact of nature contact among college students, especially in the United States. In addition, the determinants of nature contact behavior have not adequately been explored using behavioral theories. The purpose of this study was to use the multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change, a contemporary fourth-generation behavioral theory in explaining intentional outdoor nature contact behavior among college students. Using a cross-sectional design, 401 students completed the validated survey based on MTM. Of these, 281 met the inclusion criteria. The mean score for perceived stress based on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in the sample was 21.60 (7.08) units, with a possible minimum and maximum scores ranging from 0 to 40 units. Constructs of behavioral confidence (standardized coefficient = 0.591,p< 0.001) and changes in the physical environment (standardized coefficient = 0.271,p< 0.001) from MTM accounted for 57.5% of the variance in the initiation for intentional outdoor nature contact behavior. All the three constructs of MTM-namely, emotional transformation (standardized coefficient = 0.173,p= 0.021), practice for change (standardized coefficient = 0.317,p< 0.001), and changes in the social environment (standardized coefficient = 0.204,p= 0.002)-were statistically significant and contributed substantively toward the variance (31.0%) in sustenance. MTM provides a useful and pragmatic framework for designing interventions to promote intentional nature contact behavior among college students.

Accession Number: WOS:000569734700001

PubMed ID: 32825734

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Sharma, Manoj 



Kanekar, Amar Shireesh 



eISSN: 1660-4601

Record 47 of 49

Title: Understanding Black, Asian, Latinx, and White College Students' Views of Nature: Frequent Thoughts About Wild, Remote, Rural, and Urban Landscapes

Author(s): Taylor, DE (Taylor, Dorceta E.)

Source: AMERICAN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTIST  Volume: 66  Issue:Special Issue: SI  Pages: 989-1031  Article Number: 00027642211013403  DOI: 10.1177/00027642211013403  Early Access Date: MAY 2021   Published: JUN 2022  

Abstract: Nature and landscapes are essential elements of American culture. Consequently, many scholars have examined the public's perceptions of nature and landscapes. Some posit that Blacks are averse to wildlands and prefer urban settings. Despite the plethora of research, few studies investigate what comes to people's minds when they contemplate nature. This study of 287 American college students examines what students think about when they reflect on nature. Furthermore, the study investigates whether there are significant racial/ethnic differences in the way students think about nature. The study also investigates how gender, social class, age, educational attainment, and academic interest are related to what students think about when they reflect on nature. Data presented here were collected in 2017 from a national sample of students who attend colleges and universities all over the country. The study used a purposive sampling technique to identify students in a variety of majors. The sample contains undergraduates and graduate students. It is composed of 102 Whites, 63 Asians, 62 Blacks, and 60 Latinx/other students. The study found that respondents from all racial backgrounds reported that they thought about urban landscapes when they contemplated nature. Though the racial differences were significant, the results show that ethnic minority students do not fixate on urban landscapes; less than half of the students of color said they thought about urban landscapes regularly when they thought about nature. Instead, more than 90% of the respondents thought about the wild, wilderness, and untamed lands regularly when they cogitated nature. Respondents were also much more likely to report that they thought about connectedness to nature rather than disconnection from it. This article found that the students' educational attainment and parental/guardian education were significant in more multivariate models than other explanatory variables. The article urges researchers to investigate a broader range of explanatory variables in studies of this kind.

Accession Number: WOS:000652216000001

ISSN: 0002-7642

eISSN: 1552-3381

Record 48 of 49

Title: Happy but Vegetarian? Understanding the Relationship of Vegetarian Subjective Well-Being from the Nature-Connectedness Perspective of University Students

Author(s): Krizanova, J (Krizanova, Jana); Guardiola, J (Guardiola, Jorge)

Source: APPLIED RESEARCH IN QUALITY OF LIFE  Volume: 16  Issue:Pages: 2221-2249  DOI: 10.1007/s11482-020-09872-9  Early Access Date: OCT 2020   Published: OCT 2021  

Abstract: Vegetarianism constitutes not only a diet, but also a way of life and social movement currently in expansion worldwide. Since meat consumption negatively influences the environment, vegetarianism helps to preserve the health of ecosystems enhancing people's well-being. Yet vegetarians tend to experience lower subjective well-being. Potential reasons for this include social stigmatization, underlying mental conditions, or perception of the world as unfair. In this paper, we explore the possibility that vegetarians who feel connected to nature enjoy higher subjective well-being. To do so, we explore a sample comprising 1068 undergraduates and relate vegetarian commitment, accounting for vegetarian identity and vegetarian self-assessment scale, with connectedness to nature for three different measures of subjective well-being, life satisfaction, emotional well-being, and subjective vitality. We find that vegetarian subjective well-being is better understood through individuals' connection with the environment. Our results suggest that connectedness to nature is positively related, and vegetarian commitment generally associates negatively to subjective well-being except for vegans who have greater emotional well-being and vitality than other food identities. However, vegans experience greater life satisfaction while highly connected to nature. Lacto-pesco and lacto-ovo vegetarians also enjoy greater emotional well-being and vitality, respectively, while highly connected to nature. Considering vegetarian scale, individuals rating higher experience increased subjective vitality when highly connected to nature. Therefore, we propose that further policy developments in the area should consider the role of connectedness to nature in order to achieve higher levels of subjective well-being, while actively promoting pro-environmental behaviors such as vegetarianism.

Accession Number: WOS:000577514900001

Author Identifiers:


Web of Science ResearcherID

ORCID Number

Krizanova, Jana 



Guardiola, Jorge 



ISSN: 1871-2584

eISSN: 1871-2576

Record 49 of 49

Title: The nature of peer sexual health communication among college students enrolled in a human sexuality course

Author(s): Porter, A (Porter, Andrew); Coope, S (Coope, Spring); Henry, M (Henry, Myrthle); Gallo, J (Gallo, Jennifer); Graefe, B (Graefe, Beck)

Source: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SEXUALITY EDUCATION  Volume: 14  Issue:Pages: 139-151  DOI: 10.1080/15546128.2018.1529644  Published: 2019  

Abstract: Most young people go to their friends for information on sexuality-related topics, thus it is important to understand the context of these communications so that we may gather insight into sexual values and the underlying emotions and styles of communication. We conducted qualitative weekly surveys regarding discussion of sexual health topics among peers with students enrolled in an undergraduate human sexuality course. A four-stage inductive analysis process was utilized to examine a total number of 824 survey submissions from 102 college students who agreed to participate. Seven relevant common themes emerged: safer sex, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, feelings about sex, sexual acts, peer support, and peer communication norms. Some perspectives varied between males and females. Life events create opportunities for peers to discuss sexual health with each other. The connection between life events and peer sexual health communication has numerous implications for both research and education.

Accession Number: WOS:000469813000001

ISSN: 1554-6128

eISSN: 1554-6136

End of File




ChatGPT 4.0 prompt and response

Me: What are the benefits for university students of activities in natural environments versus built environments? Show results from 2017 onwards.


GPT 4.0: 
I did a quick search for more information and here's what I found.


The benefits of natural environments for university students, as compared to built environments, have been explored in various studies, highlighting several key aspects:


1. **Well-being and Mental Health**: Spending time in green spaces has been linked to improved well-being and mental health in university students. Activities in natural environments are associated with decreased stress levels, increased feelings of happiness, and improved overall quality of life. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it was observed that students who spent more time outdoors reported lower stress levels and better mental health6.


2. **Quality of Life (QoL)**: Connectedness to nature is closely related to individuals' quality of life. This includes perceptions of their position in life, physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, and personal beliefs. The use of campus green spaces is related to these perceptions of QoL7.


3. **Positive and Negative Affects**: A systematic review and meta-analysis showed that exposure to natural environments could increase positive affect and decrease negative affect. This suggests that natural settings have a more beneficial impact on emotional states compared to built environments8.


4. **Design and Usage of Campus Spaces**: The design of campus spaces plays a significant role. Biophilic design, which incorporates natural elements into built environments, can facilitate greater student connectedness with nature, others, and themselves. Campuses that integrate natural elements and attributes can offer new opportunities for students to connect with nature and improve their well-being7.


5. **Encouraging Use of Green Spaces**: It has been suggested that universities could encourage more use of green spaces by providing amenities like tables or hammock-rental services. The idea is to make these spaces more accessible and comfortable for studying and leisure, thereby promoting their use among students6.


In summary, activities in natural environments offer significant benefits in terms of mental health, emotional well-being, and quality of life for university students. These benefits are often greater than those provided by built environments, emphasizing the importance of integrating and promoting natural spaces within university campuses.


Me: Provide references for the above points. Also, please limit results to scholarly, peer-reviewed sources.


GPT 4.0: The benefits of natural environments for university students, as compared to built environments, are supported by scholarly, peer-reviewed sources. Here are the references for each point mentioned:


1. **Well-being and Mental Health**:

   - Johannesen, L. (2020). "Nature’s Impact on Student Health and Well-Being: Green Spaces on the Indiana University Bloomington Campus." This study discusses how spending more time outdoors has been shown to improve individuals’ well-being throughout the pandemic6†source.


2. **Quality of Life (QoL)**:

   - Olivos, P., & Clayton, S. (2017). "An Exploration of How Biophilic Attributes on Campuses Might Support Student Connectedness to Nature, Others, and Self." This paper proposes a conceptual framework to understand student connectedness in campus settings and its relationship to student health and QoL, particularly focusing on the role of biophilic design patterns7†source.


3. **Positive and Negative Affects**:

   - A systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on the impact of exposure to natural and built environments on positive and negative affect. While the specific reference isn't mentioned, such studies are typically found in scholarly journals focusing on environmental psychology or public health8†source.


4. **Design and Usage of Campus Spaces**:

   - The same study by Olivos and Clayton (2017) also addresses how the design of campus spaces, incorporating natural elements, can enhance student well-being and connectedness7†source.


5. **Encouraging Use of Green Spaces**:

   - The study by Johannesen (2020) also suggests practical ways to encourage the use of green spaces on university campuses, like providing amenities and organizing outdoor activities6†source.


These references come from peer-reviewed sources or scholarly articles that focus on the relationship between natural environments and student well-being, emphasizing the significance of green spaces in university settings.

Me: You provided 3 sources. One was not a peer-reviewed article. I would like to have at least 10 peer-reviewed sources that provide evidence to the points you assert above.


GPT 4.0: Based on a quick search, here's what I found.


Upon further research, several peer-reviewed studies support the benefits of natural environments for university students:


1. **Restoration from Mental Fatigue**: A study published in PLOS ONE discusses how natural environments help in the restoration process from mental fatigue. This restoration occurs because nature engages attention in an effortless and involuntary manner, allowing the capacity for directed attention to rest and restore. The study also highlights that natural environments are preferred due to their functional qualities that meet underlying needs16†source.


2. **Psychological Health**: Research in the journal Hindawi explored the restorative effect of natural environments on university students' psychological health. The study used the Restorative State Scale (RSS) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) to measure changes in restorative state and stress levels, respectively. The findings suggested improvements in psychological health due to exposure to natural environments17†source.


3. **Nature-Oriented Activities and College Students**: A study from Frontiers in Psychology examined how investing in nature interventions, such as Campus Nature Rx programs, benefits college students. These programs involve nature appreciation and engagement activities, which have been found to be effective in enhancing students' connection with nature and improving their well-being18†source.      


These studies provide a scholarly basis for the assertion that natural environments offer significant benefits for university students, particularly in areas of mental fatigue recovery, psychological health, and overall well-being.

ChatGPT/Consensus prompt and response

Me: what are the benefits for university students of activities in natural environments versus built environments?

GPT: The benefits for university students of activities in natural environments compared to built environments have been explored in various studies. These studies focus on aspects like health, well-being, physical activity, and mental health. Here are some key findings:

1. **Health and Well-being Benefits**: A systematic review found evidence suggesting that natural environments may have direct and positive impacts on well-being compared to synthetic environments. Activities like walks or runs in natural settings, such as parks and green campuses, showed benefits for self-reported emotions and attention, although evidence for physiological measures like blood pressure and cortisol was less consistent [(Bowler et al., 2010)](…).


2. **Emotional Well-being and General Health**: Another study indicated that physical activity in natural environments, as opposed to built environments, is particularly connected to better emotional well-being. This suggests that nature adds value to the known benefits of physical activity. It also showed a positive association with general health for physical activity in both natural and built outdoor settings [(Pasanen, Tyrväinen, & Korpela, 2014)](…). 

3. **Impact of Built Environment on Physical Activity**: Research examining the built environment in school neighborhoods found that certain characteristics, like park access and crime rates, influenced students' physical activity and psychosocial factors. For instance, park access was positively associated with girls' physical activity [(Graziose et al., 2016)](…). 

4. **Mental Health Benefits**: A study exploring the restorative potential of urban forest environments for students showed perceived physical, mental, and social benefits. It highlighted the importance of the natural environment in improving the mental well-being of young people [(Vujčić & Tomićević-Dubljević, 2018)](…). 

5. **Classroom Environment and Academic Performance**: The presence of natural views in classrooms, as opposed to views of built environments, showed a positive effect on students' course ratings and end-of-semester grades, suggesting that natural elements in educational settings can have beneficial effects on perception and academic performance [(Benfield, Rainbolt, Bell, & Donovan, 2015)](…). 

In conclusion, these studies suggest that activities in natural environments offer unique benefits to university students, improving emotional well-being, general health, mental health, and possibly academic performance, compared to activities in built environments.

Me: show me results only since 2017

GPT: Since 2017, there have been several studies investigating the benefits for university students of activities in natural environments versus built environments. Here are some key findings:

1. **Urban Forest Benefits for Students**: A study in Belgrade explored the perceived health benefits of students spending time in an urban forest. It found significant physical, mental, and social benefits for students engaging in activities in natural settings compared to built environments [(Vujčić & Tomićević-Dubljević, 2018)](…). 

2. **Built Environment and Active Transport**: The BEATS Natural Experiment Study investigated the effects of built environment changes on active transport among adolescents. It emphasized the significance of the built environment in encouraging physical activity [(Mandic et al., 2020)](…). 

3. **Impact of Built Environment on Brain Activity**: Research on the impact of the built environment on mental health and brain activity revealed that natural environments promote more relaxed and meditative brain activity, whereas built environments are associated with higher stress levels [(Azzazy et al., 2020)](…). 

4. **Natural/Built Campus Environment and Depression**: A study among Chinese undergraduates found that campus neighborhoods with more natural elements (trees, water) were protective against depression, highlighting the mental health benefits of natural campus environments [(Yang et al., 2022)](…).


5. **Physical Activities in Natural Environments and Learning**: Research on a Service-Learning methodology showed that students involved in physical activities in natural environments developed better environmental sensitivity and social responsibility, highlighting the educational benefits of engaging with nature [(Pastor, Muñoz, & Martín, 2018)](ísicas-medio-natural-aprendiz…).  (article in Spanish)

In conclusion, these studies suggest that activities in natural environments offer significant benefits to university students in terms of mental health, physical activity, and educational outcomes, compared to activities in built environments.





ChatGPT/ScholarAI prompt and response

Me: What are the benefits for university students of activities in natural environments versus built environments? show results from 2017 onwards.

ScholarAI: Research from 2017 onwards has provided insights into the benefits for university students of activities in natural environments compared to built environments. Several studies highlight unique advantages of engaging with natural settings:

1. **Enhanced Learning and Psychological Well-being**: A study by Luo et al. (2022) found that exposure to nature sounds through a mobile application improved university students' learning performance. This included increases in deep learning engagement, reduced academic procrastination, and enhanced academic self-efficacy ([Luo et al., 2022]( Another study by the same group (2021) observed improved psychological well-being and cognitive performance in students who used a nature-sound mobile application in their daily life ([Luo et al., 2021](

2. **Stress Recovery and Emotional Benefits**: A study by Suppakittpaisarn et al. (2022) suggested that students might experience greater stress recovery in natural environments than in built environments. The duration of exposure, especially periods as short as 5 minutes, was found to significantly impact stress recovery ([Suppakittpaisarn et al., 2022]( Yao et al. (2021) conducted a meta-analysis of 20 studies and found that exposure to natural environments had a positive impact on positive affect and a negative impact on negative affect in university students, although they noted a high heterogeneity and risk of bias in these studies ([Yao et al., 2021](

3. **Physiological Well-being**: Zeng et al. (2020) reported beneficial effects on the physiological well-being of university students participating in a three-day bamboo forest therapy session. This included lower blood pressure and heart rate and increased peripheral oxygen saturation. The students also reported a better environmental experience in the bamboo forest compared to an urban environment ([Zeng et al., 2020](

4. **Cognitive Improvement**: Bailey et al. (2018) found that university students who engaged in walking outdoors experienced significant cognitive improvement, including elevated mental restoration and a higher level of meditative state compared to walking indoors ([Bailey et al., 2018](

5. **Environmental Design Considerations**: Amirbeiki and Ghasr (2020) highlighted the significance of incorporating blue elements (like water and sky) along with green elements in the design of educational environments to enhance students' psychological restoration ([Amirbeiki and Ghasr, 2020](

6. **Development of Emotional and Behavioral Skills**: A study by Scott et al. (2018) observed that high levels of tree canopy either at home or school were linked to greater development of emotional and behavioral regulatory skills in university students. Additionally, when schools were in neighborhoods with limited concrete, students showed greater development of independence and social skills ([Scott et al., 2018](

These studies indicate that natural environments offer unique and significant benefits for university students, impacting their learning, psychological well-being, stress recovery, cognitive performance, and emotional development.

Me: Are there any more studies that deal specifically with university or college students on this topic, no older than 2017?

ScholarAI: Further studies from 2017 onwards have examined the impact of natural environments on university and college students, providing additional insights:

1. **Mood Changes in Green Spaces**: A study by Van Vleet et al. (2023) observed that university students exposed to both outdoor and indoor green spaces, natural or artificial, experienced changes in mood compared to those not exposed to green spaces ([Van Vleet et al., 2023](

2. **Physical Activity Interventions and Well-being**: Luo et al. (2022) conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that found physical activity interventions have benefits in reducing anxiety and depression in college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. While this study doesn't directly focus on natural environments, it underscores the importance of physical activity, which is often conducted in natural settings ([Luo et al., 2022](

3. **Impact of Biophilic Design**: DeLauer et al. (2022) investigated the impact of natural environments and biophilic design on college student perceptions of personal well-being in a residential academic setting ([DeLauer et al., 2022](

4. **Psychological Restoration During COVID-19 Pandemic**: Sun et al. (2021) found that natural environments on college campuses, such as blue and green spaces, positively impacted the psychological restoration of college students during the pandemic. However, the duration of time spent in these environments was not necessarily correlated with better recovery experiences ([Sun et al., 2021](

5. **Physiological Well-being from Forest Therapy**: Zeng et al. (2020) examined the benefits of a three-day bamboo forest therapy session on university students' physiological responses. The session improved physiological well-being, including decreases in blood pressure and heart rate, and an increase in peripheral oxygen saturation ([Zeng et al., 2020](

6. **Socio-Emotional and Behavioral Development**: Scott et al. (2018) found that high levels of tree canopy near homes or schools were associated with greater socio-emotional and behavioral development in preschoolers, and students in neighborhoods with limited impervious surface showed greater independence and social skills. Although focusing on preschoolers, this study highlights the potential benefits of natural environments for older students as well ([Scott et al., 2018](

These studies collectively suggest that natural environments can have a positive impact on university and college students' mood, well-being, psychological restoration, and physiological health.











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Last Updated: May 6, 2024 10:26am